Publications: K

Kaakinen, M., Oksanen, A., Gadarian, S.K., Solheim, Ø.B., Herreros, F., Winsvold, M.S., Enjolras, B. & Steen-Johnsen, K., 'Online Hate and Zeitgeist of Fear: A Five-Country Longitudinal Analysis of Hate Exposure and Fear of Terrorism After the Paris Terrorist Attacks in 2015' (2021), Political Psychology [online]
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Kaakinen, M., Räsänen, P., Näsi, M., Minkkinen, J., Keipi, T. & Oksanen, A., 'Social capital and online hate production: A four country survey' (2017), Crime, Law and Social Change, 69(1), pp.25-39
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Kaakinen, M., Sirola, A., Savolainen, I. & Oksanen, A., 'Impulsivity, Internalizing Symptoms, and Online Group Behavior as Determinants of Online Hate' (2020), PLoS ONE, 15(4), e0231052
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Kääriäinen, J. & Ellonen, N., 'The Finnish racist crime monitoring system' (2007), Poliisiammattikorkeakoulu Tiedotteita, 57
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Kabasakal Badamchi, D., 'Dimensions of Free Speech: An Exploration of a New Theoretical Framework' (2021), Cham: Springer
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Kabir, N.A., 'Can Islamophobia in the media serve Islamic State propaganda? The Australian case, 2014–2015' (2019), in J. Esposito & D. Iner (Eds). Islamophobia and Radicalization (pp.97-116). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
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Kagedan, I. J., 'Contemporary Right-Wing Extremism in Germany' (1997), in A. Braun (Ed.) The Extreme Right: Freedom and Security at Risk (pp. 107-137). Abingdon & New York: Routledge
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Kahan, D.M., 'Two liberal fallacies in the hate crimes debate' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.175-193
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Kahl, E., Koenig, A. & Smith, R., 'Student reactions to public safety reports of hate crimes' (2013), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(13), pp.2713-2730
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Kahle, L., 'Are sexual minorities more at risk? Bullying victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning youth' (2017), Journal of Interpersonal Violence [online]. pp.1-19
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Kahn, M.L., 'The American Influence on German Neo-Nazism: An Entangled History of Hate, 1970s–1990s' (2021), Journal of Holocaust Research, 35(2), pp. 91-105
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Kahn, R., 'COVID Masks as Semiotic Expressions of Hate' (2022), International Journal for the Semiotics of Law [online]
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Kajinić, S., 'Cartographies of fear and freedom: Lesbian activists in the first Belgrade and Zagreb pride parades' (2018), in B. Bilić & M. Radoman (Eds.), Lesbian Activism in the (Post-)Yugoslav Space: Sisterhood and Unity (pp. 61-85). London: Palgrave Macmillan
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Kallis, A., 'The Radical Right and Islamophobia' (2018), In J. Rydgren (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right (pp.42-60). New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Kalmar, I., '‘The battlefield is in Brussels’: Islamophobia in the Visegrád Four in its global context' (2018), Patterns of Prejudice [online]
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Kalmar, I., 'Islamophobia in the East of the European Union: An introduction' (2018), Patterns of Prejudice, 52(5), pp.389-405
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Kalsnes, B. & Ihlebæk, K.A., 'Hiding Hate Speech: Political Moderation on Facebook' (2020), Media, Culture and Society [online]
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Kamali, S., 'Homegrown hate: Why white nationalists and Militant Islamists are waging war against the United States' (2021), Oakland, CA: University of California Press
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Kamenska, A., 'Life cycle of a hate crime – Country report for Latvia' (2017), Rīgā: Latvian Centre for Human Rights
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Kammakomati, M., Tarun Kumar, P.V. & Radhika, K., 'Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Hate and Offensive Speech Detection' (2022), Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies, 116, pp. 873-881
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Kane, M.D., 'Finding “safe” campuses: Predicting the presence of LGBT student groups at North Carolina Colleges and Universities' (2013), Journal of Homosexuality, 60(6), pp.828-852
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Kane, K., 'Fostering a victim centred approach to hate crime in Scotland' (2017), Victim Support Scotland
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Kanessa, L.G. & Tulu, S.G., 'Automatic Hate and Offensive speech detection framework from social media: The case of Afaan Oromoo language' (2021), 2021 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Development for Africa, ICT4DA 2021, pp. 42-47
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Kang, M., Rivé-Lasan, M.-O., Kim, W., Hall, P. & Park, S. (Eds), 'Hate Speech in Asia and Europe: Beyond Hate and Fear' (2020), London: Routledge
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Kansok-Dusche, J., Ballaschk, C., Krause, N., Zeißig, A., Seemann-Herz, L., Wachs, S. & Bilz, L., 'A Systematic Review on Hate Speech among Children and Adolescents: Definitions, Prevalence, and Overlap with Related Phenomena' (2022), Trauma, Violence, and Abuse [online]
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Kapil, P. & Ekbal, A., 'A Deep Neural Network Based Multi-Task Learning Approach to Hate Speech Detection' (2020), Knowledge-Based Systems, 210, 106458
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Kapka, A., '‘Cuts are not a viable option’: The British Board of Film Classification, hate crime and censorship for adults in the digital age' (2016), Journal of British Cinema and Television, 14(1), pp.77-97
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Kaplan, J., 'Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic hate crime' (2006), Terrorism and Political Violence, 18(1), pp.1-33
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Kaplan, P.J., 'Nihilism and mistaken identity: (Self) hate crime in the believer' (2009), Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 16(1), pp.63-80
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Kaplan, B.A., '“Grotesquery to the Surface”: The Leo Frank Case and Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America Revisited in Trump’s Alt-Right America' (2020), Studies in American Jewish Literature, 39(1),751603, pp. 44-72
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Kaplan, M.B., 'Hate crime and the privatization of political responsibility: Protecting queer citizens in the United States?' (2008), Liverpool Law Review, 29(1), pp.37-50
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Kaplan, J., 'Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic hate crime' (2016), in Radical Religion and Violence, Routledge.
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Kappelle, L., 'Irony in teenager charged with racial vilification' (2006), The Sunday Times (Perth).

Kara, S. & Merali, A., 'Is “Vicarious Retribution Model” Sufficient to Analyse Anti-Muslim Hate Crimes?' (2020), Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 40(4), pp. 671-693
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Karayiğit, H., Akdagli, A. & Aci, Ç.İ., 'Homophobic and Hate Speech Detection Using Multilingual-BERT Model on Turkish Social Media' (2022), Information Technology and Control, 51(2), pp. 356-375
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Karim, M.R., Chakravarthi, B.R., McCrae, J.P. & Cochez, M., 'Classification Benchmarks for Under-resourced Bengali Language based on Multichannel Convolutional-LSTM Network' (2020), Proceedings - 2020 IEEE 7th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics, DSAA 2020, 9260078, pp. 390-399
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Karim, M.R., Dey, S.K., Islam, T., Sarker, S., Menon, M.H., Hossain, K., Hossain, M.A. & Decker, S., 'DeepHateExplainer: Explainable Hate Speech Detection in Under-resourced Bengali Language' (2021), 2021 IEEE 8th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics, DSAA 2021
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Karjo, C.H. & Ng, A., 'Hate Speech Propaganda from and against Muslims in Facebook Posts' (2020), International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 14(2), pp. 400-416
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Karyotakis, M.-A., Matinakiourexidou & Antonopoulos, N., 'Media and YouTube Appeal in Social Movement Mobilization: The Case of Anti-Tourism Incident' (2019), Media Watch, 10(3), pp. 687-701
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Kasakowskij, T., Fürst, J., Fischer, J. & Fietkiewicz, K.J., 'Network Enforcement as Denunciation Endorsement? A Critical Study on Legal Enforcement in Social Media' (2020), Telematics and Informatics, 46
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Kassem, A., 'Anti-Muslim hate on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean: Lebanon, the Hijab, and modernity/coloniality' (2021), Ethnic and Racial Studies [online]
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Kastolani, 'Understanding the Delivery of Islamophobic Hate Speech Via Social Media in Indonesia' (2020), Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, 10(2), pp. 247-270
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Kateri Hernandez, T., 'Bias crimes: Unconscious racism in the prosecution of “racially motivated violence”' (1990), The Yale Law Journal, 99(4), pp.845-864
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Katila, A., 'Unearthing Ambiguities: Post-Genocide Justice in Raoul Peck’s Sometimes in April and the ICTR case Nahimana et al.' (2021), International Journal of Transitional Justice, 15(2), pp. 332-350
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Kato, D., 'Constitutionalizing anarchy: Liberalism, lynching, and the law' (2012), Journal of Hate Studies, 10(1), pp. 143-172
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Katsarou, K., Sunder, S., Woloszyn, V. & Semertzidis, K., 'Sentiment Polarization in Online Social Networks: The Flow of Hate Speech' (2021), 2021 8th International Conference on Social Network Analysis, Management and Security, SNAMS 2021
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Katz, E.B., 'An Imperial entanglement: Anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, and colonialism' (2018), The American Historical Review, 123(4), pp.1190–1209
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Kaufman, D.R., 'Renaming violence' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.654-667
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Kaufman, S.B. & Niner, H., 'Muslim Victimization in the Contemporary US: Clarifying the Racialization Thesis' (2019), Critical Criminology [online]
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Kaul, V., 'Freedom of speech in liberal and non-liberal traditions' (2022), Philosophy and Social Criticism [online]
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