Publications: Causes of hate crime

A

Abrams, D., Swift, H.J. & Mahmood, L., 'Prejudice and unlawful behaviour: Exploring levers for change' (2016), Equality and Human Rights Commission, Research report 101
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Adam, B.D., 'Theorizing homophobia' (1998), Sexualities, 1(4), pp.387-404
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Ahmed, S., 'The organisation of hate' (2001), Law and Critique, 12(3), pp.345-365
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Aho, J.A., 'Out of hate: A sociology of defection from neo-Nazism' (1988), Current Research on Peace and Violence, 11(4), pp.159-168
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Akiba, D., Lopez, A.S.V. & Hirano, M., 'The nature of anti-Asian American xenophobia during the coronavirus pandemic: A preliminary exploration into envy as a key motivator of hate' (2021), Behavioral Sciences, 11(11), 158
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Alvarez-Benjumea & A., Winter, F., 'The Breakdown of Antiracist Norms: A Natural Experiment on Hate Speech After Terrorist Attacks' (2020), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(37), pp. 22800-22804
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Amjad, N. & Wood, A.M., 'Identifying and changing the normative beliefs about aggression which lead young Muslim adults to join extremist anti-Semitic groups in Pakistan' (2009), Aggressive Behavior, 35(6), pp.514-519
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Anderson, D.M., Crost, B. & Rees, D.I., 'Do Economic Downturns Fuel Racial Animus?' (2020), Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 175, pp. 9-18
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Anderson, J.F., Dyson, L. & Brookes, W., 'Preventing hate crime and profiling hate crime offenders' (2002), The Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(3), pp.140-148
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Arcila-Calderón, C., Blanco-Herrero, D., Frías-Vázquez, M. & Seoane, F., 'Refugees welcome? Online hate speech and sentiments in Twitter in Spain during the reception of the boat Aquarius' (2021), Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(5), 2728, pp. 1-17
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Ardley, J., 'Hate crimes: A brief review' (2005), The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 25(12), pp.54-66
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B

Baradaran, S., 'Race, prediction, and discretion' (2013), George Washington Law Review, 81(1), pp.157-222
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Barna, I., 'The genealogy of social hatred' (2022), Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies [online]
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Battle, J. & Lemelle, A.J., 'Gender differences in African American attitudes toward gay males' (2002), The Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(3), pp.134-139
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Berk, R.A., Boyd, E.A. & Hamner, K.M., 'Thinking more clearly about hate-motivated crimes' (1992), Herek, G.M. & Berrill, K. (eds.), 'Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men' (1992), USA: Sage Publications

Berman, A. & Robinson, S., 'Speaking out: Stopping homophobic and transphobic abuse in Queensland' (2010), Brisbane: Australian Academic Press

Bernatzky, C., Costello, M. & Hawdon, J., 'Who Produces Online Hate?: An Examination of the Effects of Self-Control, Social Structure, & Social Learning' (2021), American Journal of Criminal Justice [online]
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Bjørgo, T. & Mareš, M., 'Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities' (2019), Abingdon: Routledge
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Blackwell, C.W., 'Belief in the ‘free choice’ model of homosexuality: A correlate of homophobia in registered nurses' (2008), Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(3), pp.31-40

Blazak, R., 'Isn’t every crime a hate crime?: The case for hate crime laws' (2011), Sociology Compass, 5(4), pp.244-255
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Blee, K.M., 'The microdynamics of hate violence: Interpretive analysis and implications for responses' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.258-270
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Bleich, E., 'The rise of hate speech and hate crime laws in liberal democracies' (2011), Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(6), pp.917-934
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Boeckmann, J. & Turpin‐Petrosino, C., 'Understanding the harm of hate crime' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.207-225
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Bones, P.D.C., 'Perceptions of vulnerability: A target characteristics approach to disability, gender, and victimization' (2012), Deviant Behaviour, 34(9), pp.727-750
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Bostock, J., 'Getting away with murder' (2001), OpenMind, 112, pp.22-23

Bowling, B., 'Racial harassment and the process of victimisation: Conceptual and methodological implications for the Local Crime Survey' (1993), British Journal of Criminology, 33(2), pp.231-250
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Bray, K., Braakmann, N. & Wildman, J., 'Austerity, welfare cuts and hate crime: Evidence from the UK’s age of austerity' (2022), Journal of Urban Economics, 103439
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Bronitt, S., 'Hate speech, sedition and the war on terror' (2007), in Gelber, K. & Stone, A. (eds.) Hate Speech and Freedom of Speech in Australia. The Federation Press.

Brooks, J., Remtulla, T. & Steinberg, A., 'Youth hate crimes: Identification, prevention, and intervention' (2003), American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(5), pp.979-989
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Brunt, P. & Brophy, K., 'Gay tourist victimisation' (2006), International Review of Victimology, 13(3), pp.275-299
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Bufkin, J.L., 'Bias crime as gendered behavior' (1999), Social Justice, 26(1), pp.155-176
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Byers, B.D., & Jones, J.A., 'The impact of the terrorist attacks of 9/11 on anti-Islamic hate crime' (2007), Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 5(1), pp.43-56
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C

Cai, L., 'Analysis of Hate Crime Rates in the United States: Statistical Modeling of Public Safety Issues Based on Socioeconomic Factors' (2021), Proceedings - 2021 International Conference on E-Commerce and E-Management, ICECEM 2021, pp. 388-392
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Chakraborti, N., 'Hate crime: Concepts, policy and future directions' (2010), Devon: Willan Publishing

Chakraborti, N. & Garland, J., 'Hate crime' (2010), in DeKeseredy, W. & Dragiewicz, M. (eds.) (2010) The Handbook of Critical Criminology. New York: Routledge.

Chakraborti, N. & Garland, J., 'Hate crime: Impact, causes and responses (2nd Edition)' (2015), London: Sage Publishing

Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J., 'Hate crime: Impact, causes and responses' (2009), UK: SAGE Publications

Chan, J., Ghose, A. & Seamans, R. , 'The internet and racial hate crime: Offline spillovers from online access' (2016), MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 40(2), pp.381-403
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Cheng, W., Ickes, W. & Kenworthy, J., 'The phenomenon of hate crimes in the United States' (2013), Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(4), pp.761-794
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Chermak, S., Freilich, J. & Suttmoeller, M., 'The organizational dynamics of far-right hate groups in the United States: Comparing violent to nonviolent organizations' (2013), Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(3), pp.193-218
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Chongatera, G., 'Hate-crime victimization and fear of hate crime among racially visible people in Canada: The role of income as a mediating factor' (2013), Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies, 11(1), pp.44-64
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Cockbain, E. & Tufail, W., 'Failing Victims, Fuelling Hate: Challenging the Harms of the ‘Muslim Grooming Gangs’ Narrative' (2019), Race and Class [online]
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Cogan, J.C., 'Hate crime as a crime category worthy of policy attention' (2002), American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), pp.173-185
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Cole, M., 'Theresa May, the Hostile Environment and Public Pedagogies of Hate and Threat: The Case for a Future Without Borders' (2019), London: Routledge
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Colic-Peisker, V. & Tilbury, F., 'Being Black in Australia: A case study of intergroup relations' (2008), Race and Class, 49(4), pp.38-56
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Collins, J., 'Immigrants as victims of crime and criminal justice discourse in Australia' (2007), International Review of Victimology, 14(1), pp.57-79
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Collins, J. & Reid, C., 'Minority youth, crime, conflict, and belonging in Australia' (2009), Journal of International Migration and Integration, 10(4), pp.377-391
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Colliver, B. & Silvestri, M., 'The Role of (In)Visibility in Hate Crime Targeting Transgender People' (2020), Criminology and Criminal Justice [online]
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Cornelli, R., 'Dehumanization and Hate Policies | [Pregiudizi, Stereotipi E Potere. Alle Origini Delle Pratiche Di Disumanizzazione E Delle Politiche Dell’Odio]' (2019), Rassegna Italiana di Criminologia, 13(3), pp. 206-216
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Craig, K.M., 'Examining hate-motivated aggression: A review of the social psychological literature on hate crimes as a distinct form of aggression' (2002), Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(1), pp.85-101
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