Publications: Criminal justice responses to hate crime

A

Adams, D.M., 'Punishing hate and achieving equality' (2005), Criminal Justice Ethics, 24(1), pp.19-30
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Adams, M.S. & Toth, R.C., 'The unanticipated consequences of hate crime legislation' (2006), Judicature, 90(3), pp.129-134
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Akhtar, S., 'The mental pain of minorities' (2014), British Journal of Psychotherapy, 30(2), pp.136-153
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Akrivopoulou, C.M., 'Dignity as the ultimate boundary to the freedom of speech: An account of Jeremy Waldron’s “harm in hate speech” argument' (2014), Human Rights and Ethics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, 4(99), pp.1805-1810
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1755-1781
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making room for hate crime legislation in liberal societies' (2010), Criminal Law and Philosophy, 4(3), pp.341-358
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Albrecht, B., 'Multicultural challenges for restorative justice: Mediators’ experiences from Norway and Finland' (2010), Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime, 11, pp.3-24
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Ambikaipaker, M., 'Liberal exceptions: Violent racism and routine anti-racist failure in Britain' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, pp.1-16
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Andrew, M., 'Look West' (2005), Police Review, 113.5854, pp.20-21

Anti-Defamation League, 'Hate crime laws: Policies and procedures for law enforcement agencies' (1998), New York: Author

Antonopoulos, G.A., 'Ethnic and racial minorities and the police: A review of the literature' (2003), Police Journal, 76(3), pp.222-246
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Ardill, A. & Wardle, B., 'Firebombs and Ferguson: A review of hate crime laws as applied to child sex offenders' (2009), Alternative Law Journal, 34(4), pp.257-259
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Ardley, J., 'Hate crimes: A brief review' (2005), The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 25(12), pp.54-66
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Ashworth, A., 'Hate crime' (2013), The Criminal Law Review, 9, pp.709-710
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Atak, K., '‘Inappropriate but Not Crime?’ Policing Racial Hatred in Sweden' (2017), Nordic Journal of Criminology [online]
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B

Badar, M. & Florijančič, P., 'Assessing Incitement to Hatred as a Crime Against Humanity of Persecution' (2019), International Journal of Human Rights [online]
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Badar, M.E. & Florijančič, P., 'The Prosecutor v. Vojislav Šešelj: A Symptom of the Fragmented International Criminalisation of Hate and Fear Propaganda' (2020), International Criminal Law Review, 20(3), pp. 405-491
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Baird, B., 'Putting police on notice: A South Australian case study' (1997), in Mason, G. & Tomsen, S. (eds.), Homophobic Violence. Australia: Hawkins Press.

Baird, B., Mason, K. &Purcell, I., 'Lesbians, gay men and the police in South Australia: Strategies for change' (1994), (Paper presented at the 8th International Symposium on Victimology, Adelaide, 21-26 August 1994)

Bakalis, C., 'Legislating against hatred: The Law Commission’s report on hate crime' (2015), The Criminal Law Review, 3, pp.192-207
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Bakken, T., 'Liberty and equality through freedom of expression: The human rights questions behind ‘hate crime’ laws' (2000), The International Journal of Human Rights, 4(2), pp.1-12
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Balboni, J. M. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate crime reporting: Understanding police officer perceptions, departmental protocol, and the role of the victim: Is there such a thing as a “love” crime?' (2001), Justice Research and Policy, 3(1), pp.1-27
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Balderston, S. & Roebuck, E., 'Empowering people to tackle hate crime: Trans women and disabled people working together with victim services in North East England' (2010), Equality and Human Rights Commission, Gay Advice Darlington and Durham Victim Support & Vision Sense.
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Bales, W.D. & Piquero, A.R., 'Racial/ethnic differentials in sentencing to incarceration' (2012), Justice Quarterly, 29(5), pp.742-773
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Baradaran, S., 'Race, prediction, and discretion' (2013), George Washington Law Review, 81(1), pp.157-222
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Barber, C., 'Disability discrimination should not be tolerated' (2012), British Journal of Nursing, 21(22), p.1302
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Bayley, D. H., 'Policing hate: What can be done?' (2002), Policing and Society, 12(2), pp.83-91
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Bell, J., 'Policing hatred: Police bias units and the construction of hate crime' (1997), Michigan Journal of Race & Law, 2, pp.421-460
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Bensinger, G.J., 'Hate crimes: A new/old problem' (1992), International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 16(2), pp.115-123
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Bernstein, M. & Kostelac, C., 'Lavender and blue: Attitudes about homosexuality and behavior toward lesbians and gay men among police officers' (2002), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 18(3), pp.302-328
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Berrill, K.T. & Herek, G.M., 'Primary and secondary victimization in antigay hate crimes: Official response and public policy' (1992), Herek, G.M. & Berrill, K. (eds.), 'Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men' (1992), USA: Sage Publications

Bhat, M.M.A., 'Hate Crimes in India' (2020), Jindal Global Law Review (Special Issue) [online]
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Bhat, M.M.A., Bajaj, V. & Kumar, S.A., 'The Crime Vanishes: Mob Lynching, Hate Crime, and Police Discretion in India' (2020), Jindal Global Law Review (Special Issue) [online]
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Birk, M., Gill, H. & Heer, K., 'De-Islamizing Sikhaphobia: Deconstructing structural racism in Wisconsin gurdwara shooting 10/12' (2015), Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 10(2), pp.97-106
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Bledsoe, T.S. & Pacino, M.A., 'One community’s answer to hate' (2013), International Journal of Community Diversity, 12(2), pp.17-23
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Blee, K.M., 'The microdynamics of hate violence: Interpretive analysis and implications for responses' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.258-270
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Bleich, E., 'Hate crime policy in Western Europe: Responding to racist violence in Britain, Germany, and France' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.149-165
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Boeckmann, J. & Turpin‐Petrosino, C., 'Understanding the harm of hate crime' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.207-225
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Bonnet, F. & Caillault, C., 'The invader, the enemy within and they-who-must-not-be-named: How police talk about minorities in Italy, the Netherlands and France' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(7), pp.1185-1201
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Bourne, J., 'Does legislating against racial violence work? ' (2002), Race & Class, 44(2), pp.81-85
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Bowling, B., 'Violent racism: Victimization, policing, and social context' (1998), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Boyd, E.A., Berk, R.A. & Hamner, K.M., '‘Motivated by hatred or prejudice’: Categorization of hate-motivated crimes in two police divisions' (1996), Law and Society Review, 30(4), pp.819-850
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Brax, D. & Munthe, C., 'The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: Introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1687-1695
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Brennan, F., 'Racially motivated crime: The response of the criminal justice system' (1999), Criminal Law Review, Jan, pp.17-28
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Brennan, F., 'Legislating against internet race hate' (2009), Information & Communications Technology Law, 18(2), pp.123-153
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Brereton, S., 'Living in a different world: Joint review of disability hate crime' (2013), Probation Journal, 60(3), pp.345-346
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Briones-Robinson, R., Powers, R.A. & Socia, K.M., 'Sexual orientation bias crimes: Examination of reporting, perception of police bias, and differential police response' (2016), Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(12), pp.1688-1709
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Bronitt, S. & Stellios, J., 'Sedition, security and human rights: ‘Unbalanced’ law reform in the ‘war on terror’' (2006), Melbourne University Law Review, 30(3), pp. 923
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Brooks, T.D., 'First Amendment-penalty enhancement for hate crimes: Content regulation, questionable state interests and non-traditional sentencing' (1994), Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 84(4), pp.703-742
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Brown, A. & Sinclair, A., 'The Politics of Hate Speech Laws' (2019), London: Routledge
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