Publications: Law and hate crime

A

Abbas, T. & Awan, I., 'Limits of UK Counterterrorism Policy and its implications for Islamophobia and Far Right extremism' (2015), International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 4(3), pp.16-29
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Adams, D.M., 'Punishing hate and achieving equality' (2005), Criminal Justice Ethics, 24(1), pp.19-30
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Adams, M.S. & Toth, R.C., 'The unanticipated consequences of hate crime legislation' (2006), Judicature, 90(3), pp.129-134
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Akhtar, Z., 'Vigilantism, presumption of guilt and murder' (2018), Criminal Law & Justice Weekly, 182(7)

Akhtar, Z., 'Hate crimes and the law: Introducing caste hatred as a public order offence' (2021), New Journal of European Criminal Law, 12(2), pp. 166-183
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Akhtar, S., 'The mental pain of minorities' (2014), British Journal of Psychotherapy, 30(2), pp.136-153
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Akiviadou, N., 'Regulating hatred: Of devils and demons?' (2018), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law [online]
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Akrivopoulou, C.M., 'Dignity as the ultimate boundary to the freedom of speech: An account of Jeremy Waldron’s “harm in hate speech” argument' (2014), Human Rights and Ethics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, 4(99), pp.1805-1810
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1755-1781
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making room for hate crime legislation in liberal societies' (2010), Criminal Law and Philosophy, 4(3), pp.341-358
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Al-Hakim, M. & Dimock, S., 'Hate as an aggravating factor in sentencing' (2012), New Criminal Law Review, 15(4), pp.572-611
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Alcacer-Guirao, R. & Fouce, H., 'Toxic emotions in the new public sphere: Media controversies and hate discourse | [Emociones tóxicas en la nueva esfera pública: Controversias mediáticas y discurso del odio]' (2021), Revista Mediterranea de Comunicacion, 11(2), pp. 123-135
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Alkiviadou, N., 'Hate Crimes: The legality and Practicality of Punishing Bias—A Socio-Legal Appraisal' (2022), International Journal for the Semiotics of Law [online]
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Alkiviadou, N. & Belavusau, U., 'Rien que des mots: Counteracting homophobic speech in European and U.S. law' (2021), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law [online]
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Alsultany, E., 'How Hate Crime Laws Perpetuate Anti-Muslim Racism' (2021), Meridians, 20(2), pp. 414-442
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Altman, A., 'The democratic legitimacy of bias crime laws: Public reason and the political process' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.141-173
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Ambikaipaker, M., 'Liberal exceptions: Violent racism and routine anti-racist failure in Britain' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, pp.1-16
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Amnesty International UK, 'Tackling hate crime in the UK: A background briefing paper from Amnesty International UK' (2017), London: The Human Rights Action Centre
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Andresen, W.C., 'Research Note: Comparing the Gay and Trans Panic Defenses' (2021), Women and Criminal Justice [online]
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Anti-Defamation League, 'Hate crime laws: A comprehensive guide' (1994), New York

Anti-Defamation League, 'Hate crime laws: Policies and procedures for law enforcement agencies' (1998), New York: Author

Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 'State hate crime statutory provisions' (2014)
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Antjoule, N., '3. Hate crime laws: A guide for LGBT people' (2016), National LGBT Hate Crime Partnership
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Ardill, A. & Wardle, B., 'Firebombs and Ferguson: A review of hate crime laws as applied to child sex offenders' (2009), Alternative Law Journal, 34(4), pp.257-259
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Arrocha, W., 'Arizona’s Senate Bill 1070: Targeting the other1 and generating discourses and practices of discrimination and hate' (2011), Journal of Hate Studies, 9(1), pp. 65-92
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Ashley, F., 'Don’t be so hateful: The insufficiency of anti-discrimination and hate crime laws in improving trans well-being' (2018), University of Toronto Law Journal, 68(1), pp.1-36
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Ashworth, A., 'Hate crime' (2013), The Criminal Law Review, 9, pp.709-710
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Asogwa, N. & Ezeibe, C., 'The State, Hate Speech Regulation and Sustainable Democracy in Africa: A Study of Nigeria and Kenya' (2020), African Identities [online]
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Asquith, N., 'The harms of verbal and textual hatred' (2009), in Perry, B. (ed.), Hate crimes: The consequences of hate crime Volume 2. Praeger Publishers.

Assimakopoulos, S., 'Incitement to Discriminatory Hatred, Illocution and Perlocution' (2020), Pragmatics and Society, 11(2), pp. 177-195
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Atak, K., '‘Inappropriate but Not Crime?’ Policing Racial Hatred in Sweden' (2017), Nordic Journal of Criminology [online]
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Axelson, R., 'State-sponsored hatred and persecution on the grounds of sexual orientation: The role of international criminal law' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.277-293), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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B

Badar, M. & Florijančič, P., 'Assessing Incitement to Hatred as a Crime Against Humanity of Persecution' (2019), International Journal of Human Rights [online]
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Badar, M.E. & Florijančič, P., 'The Prosecutor v. Vojislav Šešelj: A Symptom of the Fragmented International Criminalisation of Hate and Fear Propaganda' (2020), International Criminal Law Review, 20(3), pp. 405-491
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Badar, M.E. & Florijančič, P., 'Killing in the Name of Islam? Assessing the Tunisian Approach to Criminalising Takfir and Incitement to Religious Hatred against International and Regional Human Rights Instruments' (2021), Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 39(4), pp. 481-507
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Baehr, A.R., 'A feminist liberal approach to hate crime legislation' (2003), Journal of Social Philosophy, 34(1), pp.134-152
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Baider, F., 'Covert Hate Speech, Conspiracy Theory and Anti-semitism: Linguistic Analysis Versus Legal Judgement' (2022), International Journal for the Semiotics of Law [online]
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Bakalis, C., 'Legislating against hatred: The Law Commission’s report on hate crime' (2015), The Criminal Law Review, 3, pp.192-207
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Bakalis, C., 'The victims of hate crime and the principles of the criminal law' (2017), Legal Studies [online], p.1-21
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Bakalis, C., 'Rethinking cyberhate laws' (2017), Information and Communications Technology Law [online], pp. 1-25
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Bakalis, C., 'Regulating hate crime in the digital age' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.263-276), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Bakalis, C. & Lloyd, C., 'Dangerous speech and images: Regulating the internet' (2018), Information & Communications Technology Law, 27(1), pp.1-3
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Bakken, T., 'Liberty and equality through freedom of expression: The human rights questions behind ‘hate crime’ laws' (2000), The International Journal of Human Rights, 4(2), pp.1-12
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Bales, W.D. & Piquero, A.R., 'Racial/ethnic differentials in sentencing to incarceration' (2012), Justice Quarterly, 29(5), pp.742-773
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Ballesteros, P.T., 'The hate speech of article 510.1.a) of the Spanish criminal code: Ideology as a trojan horse within suspect circunmstances of discrimination | [El discurso de odio del art. 510.1.a) del Código Penal español: La ideología como un Caballo de Troya entre las circunstancias sospechosas de discriminación]' (2021), Politica Criminal, 16(31), pp. 284-320
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Bankov, K., 'Cyberbullying and Hate Speech in the Debate Around the Ratification of the Istanbul Convention in Bulgaria: A Semiotic Analysis of the Communication Dynamics' (2020), Social Semiotics, 30(3), pp. 344-364
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Baptista, V.F., 'Femicide, Femicide and Hate on the agenda: The murder of women in Latin America | [Feminicídio, femicídio e ódio na agenda: O assassinato das mulheres na América Latina]' (2021), Brazilian Journal of International Law, 18(3), pp. 309-333
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Baradaran, S., 'Race, prediction, and discretion' (2013), George Washington Law Review, 81(1), pp.157-222
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Bárd, P., 'Prerequisites for the effective fight against hate crimes' (2022), Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies [online]
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Barker, K. & Jurasz, O., 'Online misogyny as hate crime: A challenge for legal regulation?' (2018), Routledge
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