Publications: L

Labanauskas, L., 'Racially motivated hate crimes and incidents against immigrants in Lithuania | [Rasistiniai išpuoliai, neapykantos nusikaltimai ir incidentai prieš imigrantus Lietuvoje]' (2020), Filosofija, Sociologija, 31(4), pp. 283-290
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Lacey, I., 'Free speech and the right to freedom from racial vilification' (1993), Civil Liberty, 151, 5

Lacko, I., 'Hate crime trauma and pain: Affiliation, becoming and in-Betweenness in The Laramie Project' (2018), Literary Studies and Humanity, 10(1), pp.28-33
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Lajevardi, N. & Oskooii, K.A.R., 'Old-fashioned racism, contemporary Islamophobia, and the isolation of Muslim Americans in the age of Trump' (2018), Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics [online]
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Lal, V., 'Implications of American Islamophobia' (2015), Economic and Political Weekly, 50(51), pp.12-14
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Lalić, V. & Đurić, S., 'Policing hate crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina' (2017), Policing and Society [online], pp.1-19
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Lambert, E.G., Ventura, L.A., Hall, D.E. & Cluse-Tolar, T., 'College students’ views on gay and lesbian issues' (2008), Journal of Homosexuality, 50(4), pp.1-30
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Lamble, S., 'Queer Necropolitics and the Expanding Carceral State: Interrogating Sexual Investments in Punishment' (2013), Law and Critique, 24(3), pp.229-253
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Lamond, I.R., 'The challenge of articulating human rights at an LGBT ‘mega-event’: a personal reflection on Sao Paulo Pride 2017' (2017), Leisure Studies [online], pp.1-13
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Lamontagne, E., d’Elbée, M., Ross, M.W., Carroll, A., du Plessis, A. & Loures, L., 'A socioecological measurement of homophobia for all countries and its public health impact' (2018), European Journal of Public Health [online]
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Landa, D.E., and New South Wales Office of the Ombudsman, 'Public interest in releasing the Ombudsman’s report on the allegations of police bias against Asian students: Report to the Honourable T A Griffiths MP, Minister for Police and Emergency Services' (1993)

Landman, R.A., '“A counterfeit friendship”: Mate crime and people with learning disabilities' (2014), Journal of Adult Protection, 16(6), pp.355-366
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Landry, A.P., Ihm, E. & Schooler, J.W., 'Hated but still human: Metadehumanization leads to greater hostility than metaprejudice' (2021), Group Processes and Intergroup Relations [online]
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Lang, K., 'Vorurteilskriminalität – Eine Untersuchung vorurteilsmotivierter Taten im Strafrecht und deren Verfolgung durch Polizei, Staatsanwaltschaft und Gerichte' (2015), Nomos
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Lang, K. , 'Protection of Human Rights or “Conservative Justice” – The Persecution of Hate Crime by Authorities and Justice' (2018), Knowledge Creates Democracy - Open Access Series of the IDZ
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Langarita, J.A., Sadurní, N., Caballero, A.D. & Carbó, P.A., 'From zero to hero: A transnational perspective on countering anti-LGBT hate crime in Europe' (2018), in P. Godzisz & G. Viggiani (Eds.). Running through hurdles: Obstacles in the access to justice for victims of anti-LGBTI hate crimes (pp. 291-314). Warsaw: Lambda Warsaw Association.
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Lange, A., Mayerhofer, K., Porat, D. & Schiffman, L.H. (Eds.), 'Confronting antisemitism in modern media, the legal and political worlds (Volume 5 of An End to Antisemitism!)' (2021), Berlin: De Gruyter
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Lanning, R., 'Irrationalism: The Foundation of Hate Propaganda' (2012), Journal of Hate Studies, 10(1), pp. 49-71
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Lantos, D. & Molenberghs, P., 'The neuroscience of intergroup threat and violence' (2021), Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 131, pp. 77-87
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Lantz, B. & Kim, J., 'Hate Crimes Hurt More, but So Do Co-Offenders: Separating the Influence of Co-Offending and Bias on Hate-Motivated Physical Injury' (2018), Criminal Justice and Behaviour [online]

Lantz, B. & Kim, J., 'Hate crimes hurt more, but so do co-offenders: Separating the influence of co-offending and bias on hate-motivated physical injury' (2018), Criminal Justice and Behavior [online]
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Lantz, B. & Wenger, M.R., 'Are Asian Victims Less Likely to Report Hate Crime Victimization to the Police? Implications for Research and Policy in the Wake of the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2021), Crime and Delinquency [online]
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Lantz, B., Gladfelter, A.S. & Ruback, R.B., 'Stereotypical hate crimes and criminal justice processing: A multi-dataset comparison of bias crime arrest patterns by offender and victim race' (2017), Justice Quarterly [online], pp.1-32
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Larkin, J.C. & Pines, H.A., 'No fat persons need apply: Experimental studies of the overweight stereotype and hiring preference' (1979), Work and Occupations, 6(3), pp.312-327
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Larsen, A.G., 'Boundaries of Legitimate Debate: Right-wing Extremism in Norwegian News Media in the Decade after the July 22, 2011 Attacks' (2021), Perspectives on Terrorism, 15(3), pp. 96-108
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Larsson, G. & Stjernholm, S., 'Islamophobia in Sweden: Muslim advocacy and hate-crime statistics' (2016), in D. Pratt & R. Woodlock (Eds.), Fear of Muslims?, Boundaries of religious freedom: Regulating religion in diverse societies 3, pp. 153-166
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Laster, K. & Taylor, V.L., 'Law for our multicultural society?: No worries' (1995), in Selby, H. (ed.), Tomorrow's Law 210

Laszczynska, A., 'What is the role of clinical psychologists in responding to the current rise of race associated hate crime in Britain post the 2016 European union referendum?' (2020), Clinical Psychology Forum, 2020(333), pp. 48-55
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Laurent, M., 'Project Hatemeter: Helping NGOs and Social Science Researchers to Analyze and Prevent Anti-Muslim Hate Speech on Social Media' (2020), Procedia Computer Science, 176, pp. 2143-2153
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Laurent, M., 'Hatemeter Project: Analysis of Hate Speech on Twitter a Join Effort of Computer Science, Humanities and Social Sciences' (2020), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2606, pp. 50-55
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Lautenbacher, J., Jahnke, S., Speer, D. & Beelmann, A., 'Evaluation of the web-based training “OHA—Online Hass Abbauen”—submodule offenses and violence | [Evaluation des webbasierten Trainings „OHA – Online Hass Abbauen“ – Teilmodul Straftaten und Gewalt]' (2021), Forensische Psychiatrie, Psychologie, Kriminologie, 15(2), pp. 134-142
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Lavergne, E., Saini, R., Kovács, G. & Murphy, K., 'TheNorth @ HaSpeeDe 2: BERT-based language model fine-tuning for Italian hate speech detection' (2020), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2765
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Laverick, W. & Joyce, N.P., 'Reinterpreting the UK Response to Hate Crime' (2020), British Journal of Community Justice, 16(1), pp. 82-102
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LaViolette, N., 'Independent human rights documentation and sexual minorities: An ongoing challenge for the Canadian refugee determination process' (2009), The International Journal of Human Rights, 13(2-3), pp.437-492
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Law Commission, 'Offensive and abusive online communications – Summary of scoping Report' (2018)
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Law Commission (Law Com No 213), 'Hate crime: The case for extending the existing offences' (2013), London: Law Commission
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Law Commission (Law Com No 348), 'Hate crime: Should the current offences be extended?' (2014)
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Law Enforcement Support Section (LESS) & Crime Statistics Management Unit (CSMU), 'Hate crime data collection guidelines and training manual (Version 2.0)' (2015), Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program
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Law, I. & Sayyid, S., 'Racist futures: Themes and prospects' (2007), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), pp.527-533
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Lawrence, F. M., 'The punishment of hate: Toward a normative theory of bias-motivated crimes' (1994), Michigan Law Review, 93(2), pp.320-381
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Lawrence, F.M., 'Punishing hate: Bias crimes under American law' (2002), USA: Harvard University Press

Lawrence, F.M., 'The evolving federal role in bias crime law enforcement and the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007' (2008), Stanford Law & Policy Review, 19(2), pp.251-282
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Lawrence, C., 'Sacred selfish: Effects of the rise of fear' (2007), Summer Impact 15

Lawrence, F.M., 'The hate crime project and its limitations: Evaluating the societal gains and risk in bias crime law enforcement' (2007), Social Consciousness in Legal Decision Making, pp.209-226
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Lazaridis, G. & Tsagkroni, V., 'Posing for legitimacy? Identity and praxis of far-right populism in Greece' (2016), in G. Lazaridis, G. Campani & A. Benveniste (Eds.), The Rise of the Far Right in Europe (pp.201-237). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
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Lazaridis, G. & Tsagkroni, V., 'Majority identitarian populism in Britain' (2016), in G. Lazaridis, G. Campani & A. Benveniste (Eds.), The rise of the Far Right in Europe (pp.239-272). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
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Lazaridis, G. & Veikou, M., 'The rise of the far right in Greece and opposition to ‘othering’, hate speech, and crime by civil and civic organizations' (2016), Journal of Civil Society, pp.1-17
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Lazzardi, S., Patti, V. & Rosso, P., 'Categorizing misogynistic behaviours in Italian, English and Spanish tweets | [Categorización de comportamientos misóginos en tweets en Italiano, Inglés y Español' (2021), Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural, 66, pp. 65-76
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Leach, T., 'Sexuality and transgender discrimination' (1996), HIV/AIDS Legal Link, 7(1), 26

Leader, T., Mullen, B. & Rice, D., 'Complexity and valence in Ethnophaulisms and exclusion of ethnic out-groups: What puts the “hate” into hate speech?' (2009), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(1), pp.170-182
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