Publications: A

Aa, S. van der, Claessen, J. & Hofmann, R., 'Special Need of Victims of Hate Crime Regarding Criminal Proceedings and Victim Support [Speciale Behoefte van Slachtoffers van Hate Crime Ten Aanzien van Het Strafproces en de Slachtofferhulp]' (2020), Maastricht University - Faculty of Law
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Abbas, T. & Awan, I., 'Limits of UK Counterterrorism Policy and its implications for Islamophobia and Far Right extremism' (2015), International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 4(3), pp.16-29
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Abdel-Fattah, R., '‘Lebanese Muslim’: A Bourdieuian ‘capital’ offense in an Australian coastal town' (2016), Journal of Intercultural Studies, 37(4), p.323-338
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Abdel-Fattah, R., 'Islamophobia and everyday multiculturalism in Australia' (2017), Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge

Abdel-Fattah, R., 'Islamophobia and Australian Muslim political consciousness in the war on terror' (2017), Journal of Intercultural Studies, 38(4), pp.397-411
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Abderrouaf, C. & Oussalah, M., 'On Online Hate Speech Detection. Effects of Negated Data Construction' (2019), Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2019, 9006336, pp. 5595-5602
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Abhijit, M., 'Dial H for hatred: Did Independent conclude too soon it is hate crime?' (2017), Journal of Global Communication, 10(1), pp.1-9
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Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Watch Committee, 'Eliminating racial discrimination: Submission on Racial Discrimination Amendment Act' (1992), Irene Moores (ed) Voices of Aboriginal Australia: Past, Present, Future (1995) 227

Abrams, K., 'When the state hates' (2018), in T. Brudholm & B. Schepelern Johansen (Eds), Hate, politics, law: Critical perspectives on combating hate (Chapter 11). New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Abrams, D., Swift, H. & Houston, D., 'Developing a national barometer of prejudice and discrimination in Britain' (2018), Equality and Human Rights Commission (Research report 119)
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Abrams, D., Swift, H.J. & Mahmood, L., 'Prejudice and unlawful behaviour: Exploring levers for change' (2016), Equality and Human Rights Commission, Research report 101
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Abro, S., Shaikh, S., Ali, Z., Khan. S., Mujtaba, G. & Khand, Z.H., 'Automatic Hate Speech Detection Using Machine Learning: A Comparative Study' (2020), International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 11(8), pp. 484-491
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Abu-Ras, W. & Abu-Bader, S.H., 'The impact of the September 11, 2001, attacks on the well-being of Arab Americans in New York City' (2008), Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 3(2), pp.217-239

Abu-Ras, W., Suárez, Z.E. & Abu-Bader, S. , 'Muslim Americans’ safety and well-being in the wake of Trump: A public health and social justice crisis' (2018), The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry [online]
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Adam, B.D., 'Theorizing homophobia' (1998), Sexualities, 1(4), pp.387-404
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Adamczyk, A., Gruenewald, J., Chermak, S.M. & Freilich, J.D., 'The relationship between hate groups and far-right ideological violence' (2014), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(3), pp.310-332
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Adams, D.M., 'Punishing hate and achieving equality' (2005), Criminal Justice Ethics, 24(1), pp.19-30
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Adams, M.S. & Toth, R.C., 'The unanticipated consequences of hate crime legislation' (2006), Judicature, 90(3), pp.129-134
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Aeschbach, M., '#WhatBritishMuslimsReallyThink: Negotiating religious and national identity on Twitter' (2017), Zeitschrift für junge Religionswissenschaft
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Afshar, H., 'Can I see your hair? Choice, agency and attitudes: The dilemma of faith and feminism for Muslim women who cover' (2008), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(2), pp.411-427
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Afzal, N., 'Response to CLR article on Rochdale child sexual exploitation case' (2014), Criminal Law Review, 2, pp.145-146

Agrawal, P., Yusuf, Y., Pasha, O., Ali, S.H., Ziad, H. & Hyder, A.A., 'Interpersonal Stranger Violence and American Muslims: An Exploratory Study of Lived Experiences and Coping Strategies' (2019), Global Bioethics, 30(1), pp. 28-42
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Ahmed, S., 'The organisation of hate' (2001), Law and Critique, 12(3), pp.345-365
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Ahmed, M., Brody, S., Samuel, M. & Taylor, A., 'Terrorism in London. Special report' (2005), Community Care, 1581, pp.6-7

Ahn, J.-H. & Park, H., 'Dealing With Hate Speech: Voices From Young Koreans Living in Japan' (2019), Asian Journal of Social Science, 47(6), pp. 677-700
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Aho, J.A., 'Out of hate: A sociology of defection from neo-Nazism' (1988), Current Research on Peace and Violence, 11(4), pp.159-168
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Akhtar, Z., 'Vigilantism, presumption of guilt and murder' (2018), Criminal Law & Justice Weekly, 182(7)

Akhtar, S., 'The mental pain of minorities' (2014), British Journal of Psychotherapy, 30(2), pp.136-153
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Akhtar, S., Basile, V. & Patti, V., 'A New Measure of Polarization in the Annotation of Hate Speech' (2019), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 11946 LNAI, pp. 588-603
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Akiviadou, N., 'Regulating hatred: Of devils and demons?' (2018), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law [online]
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Akrivopoulou, C.M., 'Dignity as the ultimate boundary to the freedom of speech: An account of Jeremy Waldron’s “harm in hate speech” argument' (2014), Human Rights and Ethics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, 4(99), pp.1805-1810
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Al Serhan, F. & Elareshi, M., 'University Students’ Awareness of Social Media Use and Hate Speech in Jordan' (2019), International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 13(2), pp. 548-563
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1755-1781
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making room for hate crime legislation in liberal societies' (2010), Criminal Law and Philosophy, 4(3), pp.341-358
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Al-Hakim, M. & Dimock, S., 'Hate as an aggravating factor in sentencing' (2012), New Criminal Law Review, 15(4), pp.572-611
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Al-Khalifa, S., Aljarah, I. & Abushariah, M.A.M., 'Hate Speech Classification in Arabic Tweets' (2020), Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 98(11), pp. 1816-1831
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Al-Makhadmeh, Z., Tolba, A., 'Automatic Hate Speech Detection Using Killer Natural Language Processing Optimizing Ensemble Deep Learning Approach' (2019), Computing [online]
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Alaburić, V., 'Legal concept of hate speech and jurisprudence of the European court of human rights' (2018), Politicka Misao, 55(4), pp. 230-252
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Albadi, N., Kurdi, M. & Mishra, S., 'Hateful People or Hateful Bots? Detection and Characterization of Bots Spreading Religious Hatred in Arabic Social Media' (2019), Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 3(CSCW)
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Albadi, N., Kurdi, M., Mishra, S., 'Investigating the Effect of Combining GRU Neural Networks With Handcrafted Features for Religious Hatred Detection on Arabic Twitter Space' (2019), Social Network Analysis and Mining, 9(1),41
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Albrecht, B., 'Multicultural challenges for restorative justice: Mediators’ experiences from Norway and Finland' (2010), Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime, 11, pp.3-24
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Albrecht, H.-J., 'Germany' (2008), in J. Winterdyk & G. Antonopoulos (Eds.), Racist victimization: International reflections and perspectives (pp.113-138). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Alden, H.L. & Parker, K.F., 'Gender role ideology, Homophobia and hate crime: Linking attitudes to macro-level anti-gay and Lesbian hate crimes' (2005), Deviant Behavior, 26(4), pp.321-343
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Aldridge, D., 'Online Harassment and Hate' (2019), ITNOW, 61(3), pp. 34
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Alexander, L., 'Is there a right to freedom of expression?' (2005), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alexander, L., 'The ADL hate crime statute and the first amendment' (1992), Criminal Justice Ethics, 11(2), pp.49-51
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Alhaboby, Z. A., al-Khateeb, H. M., Barnes, J. & Short, E., 'The language is disgusting and they refer to my disability’: The cyberharassment of disabled people' (2016), Disability & Society, 31(8), pp.1138-1143
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Alhaboby, Z., Barnes, J., Evans, H. & Short, E. , 'Challenges facing online research: Experiences from research concerning cyber-victimisation of people with disabilities' (2017), Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(1), pp.1-16
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Ali, N., Fleisher, W. & Erickson, J., 'Psychiatrists’ and psychiatry residents’ attitudes toward transgender people' (2016), Academic Psychiatry, 40(2), pp.268-273
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Aljarah, I., Habib, M., Hijazi, N., Faris, H., Qaddoura, R., Hammo, B., Abushariah, M. & Alfawareh, M., 'Intelligent Detection of Hate Speech in Arabic Social Network: A Machine Learning Approach' (2020), Journal of Information Science [online]
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