Publications: R

R. Ellis, J., 'A Fairy Tale Gone Wrong: Social media, Recursive Hate and the Politicisation of Drag Queen Storytime' (2022), Journal of Criminal Law, 86(2), pp. 94-108
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Rabrenovic, G., 'When hate comes to town: Community response to violence against immigrants' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.349-360
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Rabrenovic, G., 'Introduction: Responding to hate violence: New challenges and solutions' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.143-148
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Race Discrimination Commissioner, Australia, 'The Racial Discrimination Act: A review: Community consultation guide' (1996)

Raffone, A., '“Her leg didn’t fully load in”: A digitally-mediated social-semiotic critical discourse analysis of disability hate speech on TikTok' (2022), International Journal of Language Studies, 16(4), pp. 17-42
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Ragragio, J.L.D., 'Facebook populism: mediatized narratives of exclusionary nationalism in the Philippines' (2021), Asian Journal of Communication [online]
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Raha, T., Ghosh Roy, S., Narayan, U., Abid, Z. & Varma, V., 'Task Adaptive Pretraining of Transformers for Hostility Detection' (2021), Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1402 CCIS, pp. 236-243
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Rahman, N.A.A., '“Is technology making you prejudiced?”: How technology is enabling hate IRL' (2021), in M. Khader, W. Xiau Ting Chai & L. S. Neo (Eds.) Introduction To Cyber Forensic Psychology: Understanding The Mind Of The Cyber Deviant Perpetrators (pp. 113-132), Singapore: World Scientific Publishing
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Rahman, K.A., 'Shifting the dynamics in popular culture on Islamophobic narratives' (2022), Pacific Journalism Review, 28(1-2), pp. 19-28
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Rahul, Gupta, V., Sehra, V. & Vardhan, Y.R., 'Hindi-English Code Mixed Hate Speech Detection using Character Level Embeddings' (2021), Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication, ICCMC 2021, 9418261, pp. 1112-1118
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Rahul, Gupta, V., Sehra, V. & Vardhan, Y.R., 'Ensemble based Hinglish hate speech detection' (2021), Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems, ICICCS 2021, 9432352, pp. 1800-1806
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Rai, N., Meena, P. & Agrawal, C., 'Improving the Hate Speech Analysis Through Dimensionality Reduction Approach' (2020), 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems, ICACCS 2020, 9074240, pp. 321-325
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Raj, S., 'Once more with feeling: Queer activist legal scholarship and jurisprudence' (2018), International Journal of Human Rights [online]
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Raj, C., Agarwal, A., Bharathy, G., Narayan, B. & Prasad, M., 'Cyberbullying detection: Hybrid models based on machine learning and natural language processing techniques' (2021), Electronics (Switzerland), 10(22), 2810
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Rajadhyakasha, M., 'Genocide on the airwaves: An analysis of the international law concerning radio jamming' (2006), Journal of Hate Studies, 5(1), pp. 99-118
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Rajal, E., 'Education Against Antisemitism? Possibilities and Limitations for Antisemitism-Critical Educational Work [Mit Bildung Gegen Antisemitismus? Möglichkeiten und Grenzen Antisemitismuskritischer Bildungsarbeit]' (2018), SWS–Rundschau, 58(2), pp. 132-152
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Rajalakshmi, R., Selvaraj, S., Faerie Mattins, R., Vasudevan, P. & Anand Kumar, M., 'HOTTEST: Hate and Offensive content identification in Tamil using Transformers and Enhanced Stemming' (2023), Computer Speech and Language, 78, 101464
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Rajan, B. & Venkatraman, S., 'Insta-hate: An exploration of islamophobia and right-wing nationalism on Instagram amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in India' (2021), Journal of Arab and Muslim Media Research, 14(1), pp. 71-91
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Rajput, G., Punn, N.S., Sonbhadra, S.K. & Agarwal, S., 'Hate Speech Detection Using Static BERT Embeddings' (2021), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 13147 LNCS, pp. 67-77
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Ralph, S., Capewell, C. & Bonnett, E., 'Disability hate crime: Persecuted for difference' (2016), British Journal of Special Education [online]
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Ralsmark, H., 'Media visibility and social tolerance: Evidence from USA' (2017), University of Gothenburg: Working Paper in Economics No. 703
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Ramadhan, M.N., Budi, I., Santoso, A.B. & Suryono, R.R., 'Sexual Violence Classification as Hate Speech using Indonesian Tweet' (2022), Proceeding - 2022 International Symposium on Information Technology and Digital Innovation: Technology Innovation During Pandemic, ISITDI 2022, pp. 114-120
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Raman, S., Gupta, V., Nagrath, P. & Santosh, K.C., 'Hate and Aggression Analysis in NLP with Explainable AI' (2022), International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 2259036
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Ramana, D.V.S. & Reddy, T.H., 'Detection of Online Hate in Social Media Platforms for Twitter Data: A Prefatory Step' (2022), Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 267, pp. 411-419
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Ramiandrisoa, F., 'Multi-task Learning for Hate Speech and Aggression Detection' (2022), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 3178
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Ramirez, M.D., 'Racial discrimination, fear of crime, and variability in Blacks’ preferences for punitive and preventative anti-crime policies' (2014), Political Behavior, 37(2), pp.419-439
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Ramírez Sánchez, J., Campo-Archbold, A., Zapata Rozo, A., Díaz-López, D., Pastor-Galindo, J., Gómez Mármol, F. & Aponte Díaz, J., 'Uncovering Cybercrimes in Social Media through Natural Language Processing' (2021), Complexity, 2021, 7955637
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Ramirez, J., Campo-Archbold, A., Zapata, A., Diaz-Lopez, D., Pastor-Galindo, J., Gomez Marmol, F. & Aponte, J., 'On the power of social networks to analyze threatening trends' (2022), IEEE Internet Computing [online]
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Ramirez, J.L., Gonzalez, K.A. & Galupo, M.P., '“Invisible during my own crisis”: Responses of LGBT people of color to the Orlando shooting' (2017), Journal of Homosexuality [online], pp.1-21 .
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Ramírez, M.G. & de Travesedo Rojas, R.G., 'Discursive strategy on UFM on YouTube. Construction of a hate speech | [Estrategia discursiva sobre los MENA en YouTube. Construcción de un discurso de odio]' (2022), Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social, 2022(80), pp. 259-285
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Ramírez-García, A., González-Molina, A., Gutiérrez-Arenas, M.-D.-P. & Moyano-Pacheco, M., 'Interdisciplinarity of scientific production on hate speech and social media: A bibliometric analysis | [Interdisciplinariedad de la producción científica sobre el discurso del odio y las redes sociales: Un análisis bibliométrico]' (2022), Comunicar, 30(72), 113486
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Ramswell, P.Q., 'Division, derision and decisions: The domino effect of Brexit and populism’s intersection of rights and wrongs' (2018), New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers Inc
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Ramswell, P.Q., 'The Rise of Domestic Terrorism and Decline of American Democracy: How Brexit and the Trump Presidency Influenced Populist Empowerment and the Intersection of Rights. Division, Derision, Decisions' (2021), Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers
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Rankin, S.K., 'Invidious deliberation: The problem of congressional bias in federal hate crime legislation' (2014), Rutgers Law Review, 66(3), pp.563-627
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Rao, A.R. & Rao, A., 'ASRtrans at SemEval-2022 Task 5: Transformer-based Models for Meme Classification' (2022), SemEval 2022 - 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation, Proceedings of the Workshop, pp. 597-604
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Rappaport, J., 'Slurs and Toxicity: It’s Not About Meaning' (2020), Grazer Philosophische Studien, 97(1), pp. 177-202
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Räsänen, P., Hawdon, J., Holkeri, E., Keipi, T., Näsi, M. & Oksanen, A., 'Targets of online hate: Examining determinants of victimization among young Finnish Facebook users' (2016), Violence and Victims, 31(4), pp.708-725
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Rasdien, P., 'Green plea fails to save graffiti racist' (2005), The West Australian (Perth) 21 December 2005, 41

Rashid, M.M.O., 'ToxLex_bn: A curated dataset of Bangla toxic language derived from Facebook comment' (2022), Data in Brief, 43, 108416
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Raskevičius, T.V., 'Lithuania: The “LGBT-blind” approach' (2018), in P. Godzisz & G. Viggiani (Eds.). Running through hurdles: Obstacles in the access to justice for victims of anti-LGBTI hate crimes (pp. 199-217). Warsaw: Lambda Warsaw Association.
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Rathnayake, H., Sumanapala, J., Rukshani, R. & Ranathunga, S., 'Adapter-based fine-tuning of pre-trained multilingual language models for code-mixed and code-switched text classification' (2022), Knowledge and Information Systems, 64(7), pp. 1937-1966
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Rathpisey, H. & Adji, T.B., 'Handling Imbalance Issue in Hate Speech Classification using Sampling-based Methods' (2019), Proceeding - 2019 5th International Conference on Science in Information Technology: Embracing Industry 4.0: Towards Innovation in Cyber Physical System, ICSITech 2019, 8987500, pp. 193-198
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Ray, A. & George, J.F., 'Online hate and its routes to aggression: A research agenda' (2021), Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2020-January, pp. 6379-6389
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Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Racist offenders and the politics of ‘hate crime’' (2001), Law and Critique, 12(3), pp.203-221
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Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Racist offending, policing and community conflict' (2004), Sociology, 38(4), pp.681-699
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Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Hate crime, violence and cultures of racism' (2002), in Iganski, P. (ed.) (2002) The Hate Debate. London: Profile Books.

Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Racist violence as hate crime' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.6-7
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Ray, L., Smith, D., & Wastell, L., 'Shame, rage and racist violence' (2004), British Journal of Criminology, 44(3), pp.350-368
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Rayburn, N.R. & Davison, G.C., 'Articulated thoughts about antigay hate crimes' (2002), Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(4), pp.431-447
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Rayburn, N.R., Earleywine, M. & Davison, G.C., 'Base rates of hate crime victimization among college students' (2003), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(10), pp.1209-1221
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