Publications: R

Rabrenovic, G., 'When hate comes to town: Community response to violence against immigrants' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.349-360
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Rabrenovic, G., 'Introduction: Responding to hate violence: New challenges and solutions' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.143-148
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Race Discrimination Commissioner, Australia, 'The Racial Discrimination Act: A review: Community consultation guide' (1996)

Raha, T., Ghosh Roy, S., Narayan, U., Abid, Z. & Varma, V., 'Task Adaptive Pretraining of Transformers for Hostility Detection' (2021), Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1402 CCIS, pp. 236-243
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Rahman, N.A.A., '“Is technology making you prejudiced?”: How technology is enabling hate IRL' (2021), in M. Khader, W. Xiau Ting Chai & L. S. Neo (Eds.) Introduction To Cyber Forensic Psychology: Understanding The Mind Of The Cyber Deviant Perpetrators (pp. 113-132), Singapore: World Scientific Publishing
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Rahul, Gupta, V., Sehra, V. & Vardhan, Y.R., 'Hindi-English Code Mixed Hate Speech Detection using Character Level Embeddings' (2021), Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication, ICCMC 2021, 9418261, pp. 1112-1118
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Rahul, Gupta, V., Sehra, V. & Vardhan, Y.R., 'Ensemble based Hinglish hate speech detection' (2021), Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems, ICICCS 2021, 9432352, pp. 1800-1806
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Rai, N., Meena, P. & Agrawal, C., 'Improving the Hate Speech Analysis Through Dimensionality Reduction Approach' (2020), 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems, ICACCS 2020, 9074240, pp. 321-325
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Raj, S., 'Once more with feeling: Queer activist legal scholarship and jurisprudence' (2018), International Journal of Human Rights [online]
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Rajadhyakasha, M., 'Genocide on the airwaves: An analysis of the international law concerning radio jamming' (2006), Journal of Hate Studies, 5(1), pp. 99-118
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Rajal, E., 'Education Against Antisemitism? Possibilities and Limitations for Antisemitism-Critical Educational Work [Mit Bildung Gegen Antisemitismus? Möglichkeiten und Grenzen Antisemitismuskritischer Bildungsarbeit]' (2018), SWS–Rundschau, 58(2), pp. 132-152
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Rajan, B. & Venkatraman, S., 'Insta-hate: An exploration of islamophobia and right-wing nationalism on Instagram amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in India' (2021), Journal of Arab and Muslim Media Research, 14(1), pp. 71-91
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Ralph, S., Capewell, C. & Bonnett, E., 'Disability hate crime: Persecuted for difference' (2016), British Journal of Special Education [online]
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Ralsmark, H., 'Media visibility and social tolerance: Evidence from USA' (2017), University of Gothenburg: Working Paper in Economics No. 703
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Ramirez, M.D., 'Racial discrimination, fear of crime, and variability in Blacks’ preferences for punitive and preventative anti-crime policies' (2014), Political Behavior, 37(2), pp.419-439
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Ramirez, J.L., Gonzalez, K.A. & Galupo, M.P., '“Invisible during my own crisis”: Responses of LGBT people of color to the Orlando shooting' (2017), Journal of Homosexuality [online], pp.1-21 .
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Ramswell, P.Q., 'Division, derision and decisions: The domino effect of Brexit and populism’s intersection of rights and wrongs' (2018), New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers Inc
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Ramswell, P.Q., 'The Rise of Domestic Terrorism and Decline of American Democracy: How Brexit and the Trump Presidency Influenced Populist Empowerment and the Intersection of Rights. Division, Derision, Decisions' (2021), Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers
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Rankin, S.K., 'Invidious deliberation: The problem of congressional bias in federal hate crime legislation' (2014), Rutgers Law Review, 66(3), pp.563-627
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Rappaport, J., 'Slurs and Toxicity: It’s Not About Meaning' (2020), Grazer Philosophische Studien, 97(1), pp. 177-202
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Räsänen, P., Hawdon, J., Holkeri, E., Keipi, T., Näsi, M. & Oksanen, A., 'Targets of online hate: Examining determinants of victimization among young Finnish Facebook users' (2016), Violence and Victims, 31(4), pp.708-725
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Rasdien, P., 'Green plea fails to save graffiti racist' (2005), The West Australian (Perth) 21 December 2005, 41

Raskevičius, T.V., 'Lithuania: The “LGBT-blind” approach' (2018), in P. Godzisz & G. Viggiani (Eds.). Running through hurdles: Obstacles in the access to justice for victims of anti-LGBTI hate crimes (pp. 199-217). Warsaw: Lambda Warsaw Association.
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Rathpisey, H. & Adji, T.B., 'Handling Imbalance Issue in Hate Speech Classification using Sampling-based Methods' (2019), Proceeding - 2019 5th International Conference on Science in Information Technology: Embracing Industry 4.0: Towards Innovation in Cyber Physical System, ICSITech 2019, 8987500, pp. 193-198
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Ray, A. & George, J.F., 'Online hate and its routes to aggression: A research agenda' (2021), Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2020-January, pp. 6379-6389
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Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Racist offenders and the politics of ‘hate crime’' (2001), Law and Critique, 12(3), pp.203-221
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Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Racist offending, policing and community conflict' (2004), Sociology, 38(4), pp.681-699
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Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Hate crime, violence and cultures of racism' (2002), in Iganski, P. (ed.) (2002) The Hate Debate. London: Profile Books.

Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Racist violence as hate crime' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.6-7
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Ray, L., Smith, D., & Wastell, L., 'Shame, rage and racist violence' (2004), British Journal of Criminology, 44(3), pp.350-368
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Rayburn, N.R. & Davison, G.C., 'Articulated thoughts about antigay hate crimes' (2002), Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(4), pp.431-447
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Rayburn, N.R., Earleywine, M. & Davison, G.C., 'Base rates of hate crime victimization among college students' (2003), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(10), pp.1209-1221
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Rayner, M., 'Racial harassment: An overview' (1992), in Bird, G. (1992) Racial Harassment. National Centre for Crosscultural Studies in Law, Monash University

Read, T., 'Update' (2016), The Police Journal, 89(4), pp.340-345
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Recker Rayburn, N., Earleywine, M. & Davison, G.C., 'An investigation of base rates of anti-gay hate crimes using the unmatched-count technique' (2003), Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 6(2), pp.137-152
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Recker Rayburn, N., Mendoza, M. & Davidson, G.C., 'Bystanders’ perceptions of perpetrators and victims of hate crime: An investigation using the person perception paradigm' (2003), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(9), pp.1055-1074
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Reddy, V., 'Perverts and sodomites: Homophobia as hate speech in Africa' (2002), Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 20(3), pp.163-175
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Redish, M.H., 'Freedom of thought as freedom of expression: Hate crime sentencing enhancement and first amendment theory' (1992), Criminal Justice Ethics, 11(2), pp.29-42
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Rees, J.H., Rees, Y.P.M., Hellmann, J.H. & Zick, A., 'Climate of Hate: Similar Correlates of Far Right Electoral Support and Right-Wing Hate Crimes in Germany' (2019), Frontiers in Psychology, 10(October)
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Regehr, K., 'In(Cel)Doctrination: How Technologically Facilitated Misogyny Moves Violence off Screens and on to Streets' (2020), New Media and Society [online]
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Rehaag, S., 'Bisexuals need not apply: A comparative appraisal of refugee law and policy in Canada, the United States, and Australia' (2009), The International Journal of Human Rights, 13(2-3), pp.415-436
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Reich, D., Todoki, A., Dowsley, R., de Cock, M. & Nascimento, A., 'Privacy-Preserving Classification of Personal Text Messages With Secure Multi-Party Computation: An Application to Hate-Speech Detection' (2019), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 32
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Reichelmann, A., Hawdon, J., Costello, M., Ryan, J., Blaya, C., Llorent, V., Oksanen, A., Räsänen, P. & Zych, I., 'Hate Knows No Boundaries: Online Hate in Six Nations' (2020), Deviant Behavour [online]
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Reid, A., 'Does Regulating Hate Speech Undermine Democratic Legitimacy? A Cautious “No”' (2019), Res Publica [online]
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Reid, A., '‘Buses and Breaking Point: Freedom of Expression and the “Brexit” Campaign’' (2019), Ethical Theory and Moral Practice [online]
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Reid, S.F. & Smith, R.G., 'Regulating racial hatred' (1998), Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 79, pp.1-6
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Reidpath, D.D. & Diamond, M.R., 'Models of inter-racial offending: An evaluation' (1998), Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 31(1), pp.27-37
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Reilly, A. & Johnson, K.K.P., 'Dress, body and experiences of victimization' (2017), Fashion, Style and Popular Culture, 4(3), pp.403-416
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Reisner, S.L., Hughto, J.M.W., Dunham, E.E., Heflin, K.J., Begenyi, J.B.G., Coffey-Esquivel, J. & Cahill, S., 'Legal protections in public accommodations settings: A critical public health issue for transgender and gender-nonconforming people' (2015), Milbank Quarterly, 93(3), pp.484-515
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Rekker, R. & Van Spanje, J., 'Hate Speech Prosecution of Politicians and its Effect on Support for the Legal System and Democracy' (2020), British Journal of Political Science [online]
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