Publications: P

Paasch-Colberg, S. & Strippel, C., '“The Boundaries are Blurry…”: How Comment Moderators in Germany See and Respond to Hate Comments' (2021), Journalism Studies [online]
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Paasch-Colberg, S., Strippel, C., Trebbe, J. & Emmer, M., 'From insult to hate speech: Mapping offensive language in German user comments on immigration' (2021), Media and Communication, 9(1), pp. 171-180
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Pacheco, E. & Melhuish, 'Online hate speech: A survey on personal experiences and exposure among adult New Zealanders' (2018), Available at SSRN
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Pacheco, E. & Melhuish, N., 'Measuring Trends in Online Hate Speech Victimisation and Exposure, and Attitudes in New Zealand' (2019), Netsafe, New Zealand [online]
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Page, S., '‘People Get Killed Cause of There [Their] Skin. It Cannot Be Stopped’: A Midlands Case Study Considering Experiences of Racism Amongst Pupils in UK Secondary Schools and the Community' (2020), British Journal of Community Justice, 16(1), pp. 64-81
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Palakodety, S., Khudabukhsh, A.R. & Carbonell, J.G., 'The Refugee Experience Online: Surfacing Positivity Amidst Hate' (2020), Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, 325, pp. 2925-2926
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Palmer, N.A. & Kutateladze, B.L., 'What Prosecutors and the Police Should Do About Underreporting of Anti-LGBTQ Hate Crime' (2021), Sexuality Research and Social Policy [online]
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Pamungkas, E.W., Basile, V. & Patti, V., 'Investigating the role of swear words in abusive language detection tasks' (2022), Language Resources and Evaluation [online]
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Pamungkas, E.W., Basile, V. & Patti, V., 'Misogyny Detection in Twitter: A Multilingual and Cross-Domain Study' (2020), Information Processing and Management, 102360 [online]
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Panchala, G.H., Sasank, V.V.S., Adidela, D.R.H., Yellamma, P., Ashesh, K. & Prasad, C., 'Hate Speech & Offensive Language Detection Using ML & NLP' (2022), Proceedings - 4th International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology, ICSSIT 2022, pp. 1262-1268
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Pandey, Y., Sharma, M., Siddiqui, M.K. & Yadav, S.S., 'Hate Speech Detection Model Using Bag of Words and Naïve Bayes' (2022), Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 318, pp. 457-470
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Pane, M.M.M.M.P., Siregar, C.C.S., Rumeser, J.A.A.J. & Aag Gea, A.A., 'The performance mapping for the viewpoint of hate-speech on YouTube in Millenials (A Case Study of Students in A Private University)' (2021), ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, PartF168985, pp. 108-114
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Pap, A.L., 'Neglect, Marginalization, and Abuse: Hate Crime Legislation and Practice in the Labyrinth of Identity Politics, Minority Protection, and Penal Populism' (2020), Nationalities Papers, pp. 1-19
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Pap, A.L., 'Neglect, Marginalization, and Abuse: Hate Crime Legislation and Practice in the Labyrinth of Identity Politics, Minority Protection, and Penal Populism' (2021), Nationalities Papers, 49(2), pp. 221-239
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Pap, A.L., 'Harassment: A Silver Bullet to Tackle Institutional Discrimination, But No Panacea for all Forms of Dignity and Equality Harms' (2019), Intersections, 5(2) [online]
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Paradies, Y., 'A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health' (2006), International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(4), pp.888-901
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Paredes, J.N., Simari, G.I., Martinez, M.V. & Falappa, M.A., 'Detecting malicious behavior in social platforms via hybrid knowledge- and data-driven systems' (2021), Future Generation Computer Systems, 125, pp. 232-246
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Pareek, K., Choudhary, A., Tripathi, A. & Mishra, K.K., 'Comparative Analysis of Social Media Hate Detection over Code Mixed Hindi-English Language' (2022), Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 318, pp. 551-561
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Parfitt, T., 'Hybrid Hate: Jews, Blacks, and the Question of Race' (2020), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Parihar, A.S., Thapa, S. & Mishra, S., 'Hate Speech Detection Using Natural Language Processing: Applications and Challenges' (2021), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics, ICOEI 2021, 9452882, pp. 1302-1308
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Pariyani, B., Shah, K., Shah, M., Vyas, T. & Degadwala, S., 'Hate speech detection in Twitter using natural language processing' (2021), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Communication Technologies and Virtual Mobile Networks, ICICV 2021, 9388496, pp. 1146-1152
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Park, S., 'Inventing aliens: Immigration control, ‘xenophobia’ and racism in Japan' (2017), Race & Class, 58(3), pp.64-80
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Park, S. & Kim, J., 'Tweeting about abusive comments and misogyny in South Korea following the suicide of Sulli, a female K-pop star: Social and semantic network analyses' (2021), Profesional de la Informacion, 30(5), e300505

Park, S., Han, S., Kim, J., Molaie, M.M., Vu, H.D., Singh, K., Han, J., Lee, W. & Cha, M., 'COVID-19 Discourse on Twitter in Four Asian Countries: Case Study of Risk Communication' (2021), Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(3), e23272
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Parks, G.S. & Jones, S. E., '“Nigger”: A critical race realist analysis of the N-word within hate crimes law' (2008), Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(4), pp.1305-1352
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Parolari, P. & Viggiani, G., 'Filling the gaps: Combating anti-LGBT hate crimes in Italy in the silence of law' (2018), in P. Godzisz & G. Viggiani (Eds.). Running through hurdles: Obstacles in the access to justice for victims of anti-LGBTI hate crimes (pp. 177-195). Warsaw: Lambda Warsaw Association.
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Parris, C.L. & Scheuerman, H.L., 'How social movements matter: Including sexual orientation in state-level hate crime legislation' (2015), Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, 38, pp.231-257
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Paschalides, D., Pallis, G. & DIkaiakos, M.D., 'POLAR: A holistic framework for the modelling of polarization and identification of polarizing topics in news media' (2021), Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2021, pp. 348-355
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Paschalides, D., Stephanidis, D., Andreou, A., Orphanou, K., Pallis, G., DIkaiakos, M.D. & Markatos, E., 'MANDOLA: A Big-Data Processing and Visualization Platform for Monitoring and Detecting Online Hate Speech' (2020), ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 20(2), 3371276
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Patel, I., 'Emergence of institutional Islamophobia: The case of the Charity Commission of England and Wales' (2017), ReOrient, 3(1), pp.23-49
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Patel, T., 'Racism' (2014), in Atkinson, R. (Ed.) Shades of Deviance: A Primer on Crime, Deviance and Social Harm. Routledge.

Paterson, J., Walters, M., Brown, R. & Fearn, H., 'The Sussex Hate Crime Project' (2018), Final Report, University of Sussex
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Paterson, J.L., Brown, R. & Walters, M.A., 'Understanding victim group responses to hate crime: Shared identities, perceived similarity and intergroup emotions' (2018), TPM - Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 25(2), pp.163-177
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Paterson, J.L., Brown, R. & Walters, M.A., 'Feeling for and as a group member: Understanding LGBT victimization via group‐based empathy and intergroup emotions' (2019), British Journal of Social Psychology 58, pp.211-224
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Pathak, M.K. & Rai, S., 'Mob Lynching: A New Form of Hate Crime' (2020), Medico-Legal Update, 20(3), pp. 135-141
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Paul, C. & Bora, P., 'Detecting Hate Speech Using Deep Learning Techniques' (2021), International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 12(2), pp. 619-623
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Pavetich, M. & Stathi, S., 'Meta-Humanization Reduces Prejudice, Even Under High Intergroup Threat' (2020), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology [online]
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Pavlides, G., 'Expression and Its Limits: Hate Speech in Cyprus Public Television (CyBC). Interview Given by the Singer Notis Sfakianakis on the CyBC Programme ‘Tête-à-Tête’' (2019), Cyprus Review, 31(2), pp. 191-205
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Pawar, A.B., Gawali, P., Gite, M., Jawale, M.A. & William, P., 'Challenges for Hate Speech Recognition System: Approach based on Solution' (2022), International Conference on Sustainable Computing and Data Communication Systems, ICSCDS 2022 – Proceedings, pp. 699-704
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Pawlikowski, J.T., 'Religion as hatred: Antisemitism as a case study' (2004), Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), pp. 37-48
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Paz, M.A., Mayagoitia-Soria, A. & González-Aguilar, J.-M., 'From Polarization to Hate: Portrait of the Spanish Political Meme' (2021), Social Media and Society, 7(4)
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Paz, M.A., Montero-Díaz, J. & Moreno-Delgado, A., 'Hate Speech: A Systematized Review' (2020), SAGE Open, 10(4)
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Paz-Rebollo, M.-A., Cáceres-Zapatero, M.-D. & Martín-Sánchez, I., 'Subscription to digital press as a barrier to hate speech | [Suscripción a la prensa digital como contención a los discursos de odio]' (2021), Profesional de la Informacion, 30(6), e300613
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Pearson, G., 'A Beautiful Law for the Beautiful Game? Revisiting the Football Offences Act 1991' (2021), Journal of Criminal Law, 85(5), pp. 362-374
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Pearson, H. & Magić, J., 'Scottish LGBTI hate crime report 2017' (2017), Equality Network
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Pedler, R., 'ANM deputy jailed over plot' (2007), The West Australian (Perth), 25 May 2007

Peebles-Wilkins, W., 'Affirm diversity: “Mix it up”' (2006), Children & Schools, 28(1), 3

Peery, D., Richeson, J.A. & Murphy, M.C., 'Does cognitive depletion shape bias detection for minority group members?' (2015), Social Cognition, 33(3), pp.241-254
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Pégorier, C., 'Speech and harm: Genocide denial, hate speech and freedom of expression' (2018), International Criminal Law Review, 18(1), pp.97-126
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Peixoto, E.M., de Azevedo Oliveira Knupp, V.M., Soares, J.R.T., Messina M.E.D., de Mello Andrade L.M., de Melo L.C.S., de Figueiredo Bezerra D., de Castro C.R.V., da Silva L.M.T., Fernandes B., Jalil E.M., Friedman R.K., de Moura Silva C., Filho E.J.A., Grinsztejn B.G.J., Moreira R.I., de Mattos Rafael Russo, R. & de Souza Velasque, L., 'Interpersonal Violence and Passing: Results from a Brazilian Trans-specific Cross-sectional Study' (2021), Journal of Interpersonal Violence [online]
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