Publications: S

Sin, C.H., 'Researching hate crime against disabled people – Working through ethical considerations when the ‘personal is political’' (2018), In Ron Iphofen & Martin Tolich (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research Ethics (pp.322-338). London: SAGE Publications

Sin, C.H., 'Using a ‘layers of influence’ model to understand the interaction of research, policy and practice in relation to disablist hate crime' (2014), in Chakraborti, N. & Garland, J. (2014) Responding to hate crime: the case for connecting policy and research. Bristol: Policy Press.

Sin, C., Mguni, N., Cook, C., Comber, N. & Hedges, A., 'Targeted violence, harassment and abuse against people with learning disabilities in Great Britain' (2010), Tizard Learning Disability Review, 15(1), pp.17-27
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Sin, C.H., Hedges, A., Cooke, C., Mguni, N. & Comber, N., 'Disabled people’s experiences of targeted violence and hostility' (2009), Office for Public Management. Report for the Equality and Human Rights Commission.
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Sin, C.H., Sheikh, S. & Khanna, M., 'Police readiness for tackling hate crime against people with learning disabilities – Areas for improvement and examples of good practice' (2012), Safer Communities, 11(3), pp.145-153
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Singh, J., 'Desire, patriotism, and Sikh subjectivity' (2017), Sikh Formations: Religion, Culture, Theory [online], pp. 1-14
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Singh, J., 'Memory, invisibility, and the Oak Creek Gurdwara massacre: A Sikh American perspective of the ‘post-racial’ US' (2013), Sikh Formations: Religion, Culture, Theory, 9(2), pp.215-225
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Singh Gill, S. & Worley, C., 'ʼHow did it go?ʼ Negotiating race, racialisation and identity when teaching issues of race and equality in HE' (2010), Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences, 2(3)
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Singleton, B., '“Heave half a brick at him”: Hate crimes and discrimination against Muslim converts in late Victorian Liverpool' (2017), Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs [online], pp.1-13.
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Sir John Jenkins KCMG LVO, 'Defining Islamophobia: A Policy Exchange Research Note' (2018), Policy Exchange
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Sischka, K., 'Kriminalpsychologische und psychotherapeutische Aspekte der Prävention von Hasskriminalität' (2016), in Bozay, K. & Borstel, D. (Eds.), Ungleichwertigkeitsideologien in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft (pp. 289-307). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
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Sisely, D., 'Racial discrimination and crime: How VRAS could assist' (1999), in Victims Referral and Assistance Service, Support for Victims of Crime: Responding to the Challenges of Diversity: Different Cultures; Different Needs (1999), 158

Sivarajasingam, V., Read, S., Svobodova, M., Wight, L. & Shepherd, J., 'Injury resulting from targeted violence: An emergency department perspective' (2017), Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health [online], pp.
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Skulley, M., 'Clash of opposites in the racist right' (1992), Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney), 4 January 1992, 45

Slagle, M., 'An ethical exploration of free expression and the problem of hate speech' (2009), Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 24(4), pp.238-250
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Slavin, S., '‘Instinctively, I’m not just a sexual beast’: The complexity of intimacy among Australian gay men ' (2009), Sexualities, 12(1), pp.79-96
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Sleptcov, N., 'Political homophobia as a State strategy in Russia' (2017), Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective, 12(1), pp.140-161
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Sloan, L.M, King, L. & Sheppard, S., 'Hate crimes motivated by sexual orientation' (1998), Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Sciences, 8(3), pp.25-39
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Smångs, M., 'Interracial status competition and Southern lynching, 1882-1930' (2016), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(10), pp.1849-1868
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Smångs, M., 'Doing violence, making race: Southern lynching and White racial group formation' (2016), American Journal of Sociology, 121(5), pp.1329-1374
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Smith, S. J. , 'Negotiating ethnicity in an uncertain environment' (1984), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 7(3), pp.360-373
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Smith, D.E., 'Homophobic and transphobic violence against youth: The Jamaican context' (2017), International Journal of Adolescence and Youth [online], pp.1-9
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Smith, A., 'Moving against hate crime' (2014), The Criminal Law Review, 7, pp.475-476

Smith, C.R., 'Circumventing The “True Threat” And “Viewpoint” Protection Tests to Deal with Persistent Campus Hate Speech' (2020), First Amendment Studies [online]
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Smith, T., 'The Cronulla chaos: Five gloomy explanations' (2006), Australian Quarterly, 78(1), 9

Smith, A., 'Unmasking the state: Racial/gender terror and hate crimes' (2007), Australian Feminist Law Journal, 26(1), pp.47-57
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Smith, K. (ed.), Lader, D., Hoare, J. & Lau, I., 'Hate crime, cyber security and the experience of crime among children: Findings from the 2010/11 British Crime Survey: Supplementary volume 3 to crime in England and Wales 2010/11' (2012), Home Office Statistical Bulletin.
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Smith, S.J., Zanotti, D.C., Axelton, A.M., Saucier, D.A., 'Individuals’ beliefs about the etiology of same-sex sexual orientation' (2011), Journal of Homosexuality, 58(8), pp.1110-1131
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Snell, J., 'Nurses wage war on hate crime' (2013), Nursing Standard, 27(19), pp.16-18
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Snowball, L. & Weatherburn, D., 'Does racial bias in sentencing contribute to Indigenous overrepresentation in prison? ' (2007), Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 40(3), pp.272-290
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Socialist Equality Party, 'The class issues behind Australia’s race riots' (2005)
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Sohn, H. & Lee, H., 'MCERT4HATE: Hate Speech Detection Using Multi-Channel Bert for Different Languages and Translations' (2019), IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDMW, 2019-November, 8955559, pp. 551-559
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Solomon, T., 'Problems in drafting legislation against racist activities' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.265-298
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Song Richardson, L. & Goff, P.A., 'Implicit racial bias in public defender triage' (2013), Yale Law Journal, 122(8), pp.2626-2649
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Sorato, D., Goularte, F.B. & Fileto, R., 'Short Semantic Patterns: A Linguistic Pattern Mining Approach for Content Analysis Applied to Hate Speech' (2020), International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 29(2), 2040002
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Soto, C.A.A., 'Discourse by readers of digital media about police violence against women: Another form of virtual violence?' (2018), Estudios Sobre el Mensaje Periodistico 24(2), pp. 1023-1041
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Soto, C.A.A. & Sánchez, K.D.V., 'Internet Violence Against Chilean Feminists and Other Activists | [Violencia En Internet Contra Feministas Y Otras Activistas Chilenas]' (2019), Revista Estudos Feministas, 27(3), e58797
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Soule, S.A. & Earl, J., 'The enactment of state-level hate crime law in the United States: Intrastate and interstate factors' (2001), Sociological Perspectives, 44(3), pp.281-305
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Soule, S.A. & Van Dyke, N., 'Black Church Arson in the United States, 1989-1996' (1999), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(4), pp.724-742
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Southern Poverty Law Center [SPLC], 'Ten ways to fight hate: A community resource guide' (2017)
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Soyer, F., 'Faith, culture and fear: Comparing Islamophobia in early modern Spain and twenty-first-century Europe' (2014), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(3), pp.399-416
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Spalek, B., 'Communities, identities and crime' (2008), Bristol: The Policy Press.

Spalek, B., 'Hate crimes against British Muslims in the aftermath of September 11th' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.20-21
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Spencer, K.B., Charbonneau, A.K. & Glaser, J., 'Implicit bias and policing' (2015), Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(1), pp.50-63
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Spieldenner, A.R. & Glenn, C.L., 'Scripting hate crimes: Victim, space and perpetrator defining hate' (2014), Continuum, 28(1), pp.123-135
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Spohn, C., 'Race, crime, and punishment in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries' (2015), Crime and Justice, 44(1), pp.49-97
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Sponholz, L., 'Hate Speech in den Massenmedien: Theoretische Grundlagen und empirische Umsetzung' (2018), Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften
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Sponholz, L., 'Hate Speech in Sozialen Medien: Motor der Eskalation?' (2019), in H. Friese, M. Nolden & M. Schreiter (Eds.), Rassismus im Alltag (pp. 157-178). Bielefeld: transcript Verlag (in German only)
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Sponholz, L., 'Der Begriff „Hate Speech“ in der Deutschsprachigen Forschung. Eine Empirische Begriffsanalyse [The Concept “Hate Speech” in German-speaking Research. An Empirical Conceptual Analysis]' (2020), SWS-Rundschau 1, pp. 45-63 [in German only]
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Sponholz, L., & Christofoletti, R., 'From preachers to comedians: Ideal types of hate speakers in Brazil' (2019), Global Media and Communication, 15(1), pp. 67–84
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