Publications: Racist hate crime

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Bjørgo, T. & Mareš, M., 'Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities' (2019), Abingdon: Routledge
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Blaisdell, B., 'Schools as racial spaces: Understanding and resisting structural racism' (2015), International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education
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Bledsoe, T.S. & Pacino, M.A., 'One community’s answer to hate' (2013), International Journal of Community Diversity, 12(2), pp.17-23
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Blee, K., 'Positioning hate' (2004), Journal of Hate Studies, 3(1), pp. 95-105
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Blee, K.M., 'Racial violence in the United States' (2005), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(4), pp.499-619
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Blee, K.M., 'The microdynamics of hate violence: Interpretive analysis and implications for responses' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.258-270
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Bleich, E., 'From race to hate: A historical perspective' (2018), in T. Brudholm & B. Schepelern Johansen (Eds), Hate, politics, law: Critical perspectives on combating hate (Chapter 1). New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Bleich, E., 'Hate crime policy in Western Europe: Responding to racist violence in Britain, Germany, and France' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.149-165
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Bleich, E. & Lambert, F., 'Why are racist associations free in some states and banned in others? Evidence from 10 liberal democracies' (2013), West European Politics, 36(1), pp.122-149
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Body-Gendrot, S., 'France' (2008), in J. Winterdyk & G. Antonopoulos (Eds.), Racist victimization: International reflections and perspectives (pp.89-112). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Boeckmann, R.J. & Liew, J., 'Hate speech: Asian American students’ justice judgments and psychological responses' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.363-381
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Bohonos, J.W., 'Workplace hate speech and rendering Black and Native lives as if they do not matter: A nightmarish autoethnography' (2021), Organization [online]
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Boletsi, M., 'Europe and its discontents: Intra-European violence in Dutch literature after 9/11' (2017), in S. Frank (Ed.), 9/11 in European literature (pp.283-321). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
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Bonhomme, M. & Alfaro, A., '‘The filthy people’: Racism in digital spaces during Covid-19 in the context of South–South migration' (2022), International Journal of Cultural Studies, 25(3-4), pp. 404-427
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Bonnet, F. & Caillault, C., 'The invader, the enemy within and they-who-must-not-be-named: How police talk about minorities in Italy, the Netherlands and France' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(7), pp.1185-1201
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Borell, K., 'When is the time to hate? A research review on the impact of dramatic events on Islamophobia and Islamophobic hate crimes in Europe' (2015), Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, pp.1-13
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Boske, C., 'Preparing school leaders to interrupt racism at various levels in educational systems' (2015), International Journal of Multicultural Education, 17(1), pp.121-142
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Botha, J., '‘Swartman’: Racial Descriptor or Racial Slur? Rustenburg Platinum Mine v SAEWA obo Bester [2018]' (2020), Constitutional Court Review, 10(1), pp. 353-377
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Bourne, J., 'Does legislating against racial violence work? ' (2002), Race & Class, 44(2), pp.81-85
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Bourou, M., '“Diversity is a code word. And what it means is white genocide!” The cinematic representation of neofascist rhetoric in four dramatic race-related films' (2022), Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 10(1), pp. 219-239
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Bowling, B., 'Racial harassment and the process of victimisation: Conceptual and methodological implications for the Local Crime Survey' (1993), British Journal of Criminology, 33(2), pp.231-250
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Bowling, B., 'Violent racism: Victimization, policing, and social context' (1998), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bowling, B. & Phillips, C., 'Racism, crime and justice' (2002), Harlow: Pearson.

Braune, J., 'Void and idol: A critical theory analysis of the neo-fascist “Alt-Right”' (2019), Journal of Hate Studies, 15(1), pp. 11-37
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Breazu, P. & Machin, D., 'Racism is not just hate speech: Ethnonationalist victimhood in YouTube comments about the Roma during Covid-19' (2022), Language in Society [online]
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Brennan, F., 'Racially motivated crime: The response of the criminal justice system' (1999), Criminal Law Review, Jan, pp.17-28
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Brennan, F., 'Legislating against internet race hate' (2009), Information & Communications Technology Law, 18(2), pp.123-153
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Bresnahan, M., Zhu, Y., Hooper, A., Hipple, S. & Savoie, L., 'The Negative Health Effects of Anti-Asian Stigma in the U.S. During COVID-19' (2022), Stigma and Health [online]
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Brewer, J.P. & Johnson, J.T., 'For Indigenous youth: Towards caring and compassion, deconstructing the borderlands of reconciliation' (2021), in S. O’Lear (Ed.) A Research Agenda for Geographies of Slow Violence: Making Social and Environmental Injustice Visible (pp. 137-154), Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing
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Brimicombe , A. J., Ralphs , M. P., Sampson, A. & Tsui, H. Y. , 'An analysis of the role of neighbourhood ethnic composition in the geographical distribution of racially motivated incidents' (2001), British Journal of Criminology, 41(2), pp.293-308.
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Brooks, M.C., Ezzani, M.D., Sai, Y. & Sanjakdar, F., 'Racialization of Muslim students in Australia, Ireland, and the United States: cross-cultural perspectives' (2021), Race Ethnicity and Education [online]
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Bryant-Davis, T. & Ocampo, C., 'Racist incident-based trauma' (2005), Counseling Psychologist, 33(4), pp.479-500
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Bueker, C.S., 'What wakes the sleeping giant? The effect of state context on Latino voter turnout in the 2004 election' (2013), Latino Studies, 11(3), pp.388-410
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Bufkin, J.L., 'Bias crime as gendered behavior' (1999), Social Justice, 26(1), pp.155-176
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Bunar, N., 'Hate crimes against immigrants in Sweden and community responses' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.166-181
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Burdsey, D. & Gorman, S., 'When Adam met Rio: Conversations on racism, anti-racism and multiculturalism in the Australian Football League and English Premier League' (2015), Sport in Society, 18(5), pp.577-587
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Burnap, P. & Williams, M.L., 'Hate Speech, machine classification and statistical modelling of information flows on Twitter: Interpretation and communication for policy decision making' (2014), The Internet, Policy & Politics Conferences.
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Burnett, J., 'Racial violence and the Brexit state' (2017), Race and Class, 58(4), pp.85-97
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Burnett, J., 'Britain: Racial violence and the politics of hate' (2013), Race & Class, 54(4), pp.5-21
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Burney, E., 'Using the law on racially aggravated offences' (2003), Criminal Law Review, Jan, pp.28-36

Burney, E. & Rose, G., 'Racist offences – how is the law working?: The implementation of the legislation on racially aggravated offences in the Crime and Disorder Act 1998' (2002), Home Office Research Study 244. London: Home Office
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Burns, S.L., Harper, S.R., Hildebrand, E.S. & Moore, M.N., 'Behavioural responses to hate crimes: A study of Asians and Asian Americans on a university campus' (2000), Journal of the Indiana University Student Personnel Association, pp.64-78
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Burt, C.H., Simons, R.L. & Gibbons, F.X., 'Racial discrimination, ethnic-racial socialization, and crime: A micro-sociological model of risk and resilience' (2012), American Sociological Review, 77(4), pp.648-677
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Byers, B.D., & Jones, J.A., 'The impact of the terrorist attacks of 9/11 on anti-Islamic hate crime' (2007), Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 5(1), pp.43-56
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Callander, D., Newman, C.E. & Holt, M., 'Is sexual racism really racism? Distinguishing attitudes toward sexual racism and generic racism among gay and bisexual men' (2015), Archives of Sexual Behavior
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Canfield-Davis, K., Gardiner, M. E., & Joki, R. A., 'Social justice leadership in action: The case of Tony Stewar' (2009), Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), pp. 77-98
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Cao, J., Lee, C., Sun, W. & De Gagne, J.C., 'The #StopAsianHate Movement on Twitter: A Qualitative Descriptive Study' (2022), International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(7), 3757
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Carr, J. & Haynes, A., 'A clash of racialisations: The policing of ‘race’ and of anti-Muslim racism in Ireland' (2015), Critical Sociology January, 41, pp.21-40
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Carter-Thuillier, B., Gallardo-Fuentes, F., Moreno-Doña, A. & Beltrán-Véliz, J., 'Immigration, racism, and social justice: What is the role for schools during the COVID-19 pandemic? | [ImigraÇÃo, racismo e justiÇa social: Qual o papel da escola diante da pandemia COVID-19?]' (2021), Interciencia, 46(6), pp. 280-286
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Casquilho-Martins, I., Belchior-Rocha, H. & Alves, D.R., 'Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Portugal in Times of Pandemic Crisis' (2022), Social Sciences, 11(5),184
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