Publications: A

Alhaboby, Z. A., al-Khateeb, H. M., Barnes, J. & Short, E., 'The language is disgusting and they refer to my disability’: The cyberharassment of disabled people' (2016), Disability & Society, 31(8), pp.1138-1143
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Alhaboby, Z., Barnes, J., Evans, H. & Short, E. , 'Challenges facing online research: Experiences from research concerning cyber-victimisation of people with disabilities' (2017), Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(1), pp.1-16
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Ali, S., 'The specter of hate and intolerance: sectarian-jihadi nexus and the persecution of Hazara Shia community in Pakistan' (2020), Contemporary South Asia [online]
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Ali, N., Fleisher, W. & Erickson, J., 'Psychiatrists’ and psychiatry residents’ attitudes toward transgender people' (2016), Academic Psychiatry, 40(2), pp.268-273
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Ali, O., Scheidt, N., Gegov, A., Haig, E., Adda, M. & Aziz, B., 'Automated Detection of Racial Microaggressions using Machine Learning' (2020), 2020 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2020, 9308569, pp. 2477-2484
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Aljarah, I., Habib, M., Hijazi, N., Faris, H., Qaddoura, R., Hammo, B., Abushariah, M. & Alfawareh, M., 'Intelligent Detection of Hate Speech in Arabic Social Network: A Machine Learning Approach' (2020), Journal of Information Science [online]
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Alkiviadou, N., 'The Far-Right in International and European Law (2019), Abingdon: Routledge' (2019)
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Alkiviadou, N., 'The legal regulation of hate speech: The international and European frameworks' (2018), Politicka Misao, 55(4), pp. 203-229
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Alkiviadou, N., 'Regulating hatred: Of devils and demons?' (2018), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 18(4), pp.218–236
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All Party Parliamentary Group on British Muslims (appg), 'Islamophobia defined: The inquiry into a working definition of Islamophobia' (2018)
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Allen, C., 'Islamophobia and the problematization of Mosques: A critical exploration of hate crimes and the symbolic function of “old” and “new” Mosques in the United Kingdom' (2017), Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 37(3), pp.294-308
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Allen, M., 'Police reported hate crime in Canada, 2012' (2014), Statistics Canada
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Allen, Chris, 'Human Rights Advocates or Opportunists_ Defence Discourses Among Britain’s Far-Right.' (2020)
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Allen, C., 'Ideological Islamophobia: Conception and function, ‘normative truths’ and ‘new reality’' (2017), Muslim Perspectives, 2(2), pp.2-19
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Allen, C., 'Political approaches to tackling Islamophobia: An ‘insider/outsider’ analysis of the British Coalition Government’s approach between 2010–15' (2017), Social Sciences, 6(3), p.77
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Allen, C. H, 'Hate crime in the UK' (2018), Knowledge Creates Democracy - Open Access Series of the IDZ
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Allen, C., Isakjee, A. & Young, Ö.Ö., '‘Maybe we are hated’: The experience and impact of anti-Muslim hate on British Muslim women, November 2013' (2013), University of Birmingham, Institute of Applied Social Studies
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Allen, D. & Gibson, J., 'The issue of racial vilification' (1990), Law Institute Journal, 64(8), 709

Allison, K. & Harris, C.T., 'Predicting bias homicide across victim groups: A county-level analysis' (2018), Social Science Research [online]
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Allison, K., & Klein, B.R, 'Pursuing Hegemonic Masculinity Through Violence: An Examination of Anti-Homeless Bias Homicides’ (2019),' (2019), Journal of Interpersonal Violence [online]
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Allport, G. W., 'The nature of prejudice' (1954), Reading, MA: Addison - Wesley

Almack, K., Seymour, J. & Bellamy, G., 'Exploring the impact of sexual orientation on experiences and concerns about end of life care and on bereavement for lesbian, gay and bisexual older people' (2010), Sociology, 44(5), pp.908-924
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Almatarneh, S., Gamallo, P., Pena, F.J.R. & Alexeev, A., 'Supervised Classifiers to Identify Hate Speech on English and Spanish Tweets' (2019), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 11853 LNCS, pp. 23-30
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Almuger, T., 'Racial fault lines: The historical origin of white supremacy in California' (1994), Berkley: University of California Press

Alonso, P., Saini, R. & Kovács, G., 'Hate Speech Detection Using Transformer Ensembles on the HASOC Dataset' (2020), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 12335 LNAI, pp. 13-21
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Alotaibi, A. & Abul Hasanat, M.H., 'Racism Detection in Twitter Using Deep Learning and Text Mining Techniques for the Arabic Language' (2020), Proceedings - 2020 1st International Conference of Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies, SMART-TECH 2020, 9283815, pp. 161-164
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Alrehili, A., 'Automatic Hate Speech Detection on Social Media: A Brief Survey' (2019), Proceedings of IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, AICCSA, 2019-November, 9035228
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Alsaad, A., Taamneh, A. & Al-Jedaiah, M.N., 'Does social media increase racist behavior? An examination of confirmation bias theory' (2018), Technology in Society [online]
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Alsafari, S., Sadaoui, S. & Mouhoub, M., 'Deep Learning Ensembles for Hate Speech Detection' (2020), Proceedings - International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, ICTAI, 2020-November, 9288318, pp. 526-531
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Alsafari, S., Sadaoui, S. & Mouhoub, M., 'Hate and Offensive Speech Detection on Arabic Social Media' (2020), Online Social Networks and Media, 19, 100096
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Alshalan, R. & Al-Khalifa, H., 'A deep learning approach for automatic hate speech detection in the Saudi Twittersphere' (2020), Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10(23), 8614, pp. 1-16
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Alshalan, R., Al-Khalifa, H., Alsaeed, D., Al-Baity, H. & Alshalan, S., 'Detection of hate speech in COVID-19-related tweets in the Arab Region: Deep learning and topic modeling approach' (2020), Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(12), e22609
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Altman, A., 'The democratic legitimacy of bias crime laws: Public reason and the political process' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.141-173
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Alvarez-Benjumea & A., Winter, F., 'The Breakdown of Antiracist Norms: A Natural Experiment on Hate Speech After Terrorist Attacks' (2020), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(37), pp. 22800-22804
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Ambikaipaker, M., 'Liberal exceptions: Violent racism and routine anti-racist failure in Britain' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, pp.1-16
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Amer, M.M. & Bagasra, A., 'Psychological research with Muslim Americans in the age of Islamophobia: Trends, challenges and recommendations' (2013), American Psychologist, 68(3), pp.134-144
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American Bar Association, Long J.T. & Kelly, C.L., 'Justice Works: Framework for Enhanced Responses to Bias-Motivated Violence Based on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, or Gender Expression' (2019), ABA
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Amira, K., Wright, J.C., Goya-Tocchetto, D., 'In-Group Love Versus Out-Group Hate: Which Is More Important to Partisans and When?' (2019), Political Behavior [online]
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Amjad, N. & Wood, A.M., 'Identifying and changing the normative beliefs about aggression which lead young Muslim adults to join extremist anti-Semitic groups in Pakistan' (2009), Aggressive Behavior, 35(6), pp.514-519
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Amnesty International UK, 'Tackling hate crime in the UK: A background briefing paper from Amnesty International UK' (2017), London: The Human Rights Action Centre
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Amores, J.J., Arcila-Calderón, C. & Blanco-Herrero, D., 'Evolution of negative visual frames of immigrants and refugees in the main media of Southern Europe' (2020), Profesional de la Informacion, 29(6), e290624, pp. 1-21
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Amrute, S., 'Immigrant Sensibilities in Tech Worlds: Sensing Hate, Capturing Dissensus' (2020), Cultural Anthropology, 35(3), pp. 374-403
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Amrutha, B.R. & Bindu, K.R., 'Detecting Hate Speech in Tweets Using Different Deep Neural Network Architectures' (2019), 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems, ICCS 2019, 9065763, pp. 923-926
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Anand, M. & Eswari, R., 'Classification of Abusive Comments in Social Media Using Deep Learning' (2019), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication, ICCMC 2019, pp. 974-977
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Anderson, L., 'Countering Islamophobic media representations: The potential role of peace journalism' (2015), Global Media and Communication, 11(3) pp.255-270
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Anderson, D.M., Crost, B. & Rees, D.I., 'Do Economic Downturns Fuel Racial Animus?' (2020), Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 175, pp. 9-18
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Anderson, J.F., Dyson, L. & Brookes, W., 'Preventing hate crime and profiling hate crime offenders' (2002), The Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(3), pp.140-148
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Anderson, R. & Fetner, T., 'Cohort differences in tolerance of homosexuality: Attitudinal changes in Canada and the United States 1981-2000' (2008), Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(2), pp.311-330
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Andersson, M., Ivert, A.K. & Mellgren, C., 'When there is more than one motive: A study on self-reported hate crime victimization among Swedish university students' (2017), International Review of Victimology [online], pp.1-15
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Andrew, M., 'Look West' (2005), Police Review, 113.5854, pp.20-21

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