Publications: Criminal justice responses to hate crime

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Kleinig, J., 'Penalty enhancement for hate crimes' (1992), Criminal Justice Ethics, 11(2), pp.3-6
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Knoll, D., 'Anti-vilification laws: Some recent developments in the United States and their implications for proposed legislation in the Commonwealth of Australia' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.211-234
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Koenig, T.H. & Rustad, M.L., '“Hate torts” to fight hate crimes: Punishing the organizational roots of evil' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.302-318
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Landa, D.E., and New South Wales Office of the Ombudsman, 'Public interest in releasing the Ombudsman’s report on the allegations of police bias against Asian students: Report to the Honourable T A Griffiths MP, Minister for Police and Emergency Services' (1993)

Law Commission (Law Com No 348), 'Hate crime: Should the current offences be extended?' (2014)
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Lawrence, F.M., 'Punishing hate: Bias crimes under American law' (2002), USA: Harvard University Press

Lawrence, F.M., 'The evolving federal role in bias crime law enforcement and the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007' (2008), Stanford Law & Policy Review, 19(2), pp.251-282
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Lawrence, F.M., 'The hate crime project and its limitations: Evaluating the societal gains and risk in bias crime law enforcement' (2007), Social Consciousness in Legal Decision Making, pp.209-226
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Leonard, W., Mitchell, A., Pitts, M. & Patel, S., 'Coming forward – The underreporting of heterosexist violence and same sex partner abuse in Victoria' (2009), Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society (ARCSHS).
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Lepoutre, M., 'Hate Speech Laws: Expressive Power Is Not the Answer' (2020), Legal Theory [online]
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Levin, B., 'The vindication of hate violence victims via criminal and civil adjudications' (2002), Journal of Hate Studies, 1(1), pp. 133-165
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Levin, B., 'From slavery to hate crime laws: The emergence of race and status based protection in American criminal law' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.227-245
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Levin, B., & Amster, S., 'Making hate history: Hate crime and policing in America’s most diverse city' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.329-348
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Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate crimes: The rising tide of bigotry and bloodshed' (2001), Westview Press Inc.

Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Police response' (1993), Hate Crimes, pp.159-178
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Levin, J., Rabrenovic, G., Ferraro, V., Doran, T., & Methe, D., 'When a crime committed by a teenager becomes a hate crime: Results from two studies' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.246-257
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Liern, G.R., 'Social Networks and Hate Speech: An International Perspective | [Redes Sociales y Discurso del Odio: Perspectiva Internacional]' (2020), Revista de Internet, Derecho y Politica, (31)
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Lyons, C.J. & Roberts, A., 'The difference “hate” makes in clearing crime: An event history analysis of incident factors' (2014), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(3), pp.268-289
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Maher, JM, McCulloch, J. & Mason, G., 'Punishing gendered violence as hate crime: Aggravated sentences as a means of recognising hate as motivation for violent crimes against women' (2015), Australian Feminist Law Journal, 41(1), pp.177-193
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Mahoney, K.E., 'Hate vilification legislation and freedom of expression: Where is the balance?' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), 353 (Paper presented at the Racism and Anti-Semitism in Contemporary Australia Conference, Melbourne, 11-12 June 1994)
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Marais, M.E. & Pretorius, J.L., 'The Constitutionality of the Prohibition of Hate Speech in Terms of Section 10(1) of the Equality Act: A Reply to Botha and Govindjee' (2019), Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, 22, pp. 1-37
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Marcus-Newhall, A., Blake, L.P. & Baumann, J., 'Perceptions of hate crime perpetrators and victims as influenced by race, political orientation, and peer group' (2002), American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), pp.108-135
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Marie, D., Fergusson, D.M. & Boden, J.M., 'Ethnic identity and criminal offending in a New Zealand birth cohort' (2009), Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 42(3), pp.354-368
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Martin, S.E., 'Police and the production of hate crimes: Continuity and change in one jurisdiction' (1999), Police Quarterly, 2(4), pp.417-437
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Martin, S.E., 'Investigating hate crimes: Case characteristics and law enforcement responses' (1996), Justice Quarterly, 13(3), pp.455-448
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Martins, A.C.L., 'Hate Speech in Social Networks and Recognition of the Other: The M. Case | [Discurso de Ódio em Redes Sociais e Reconhecimento do Outro: O Caso M.]' (2019), Revista Direito GV, 15(1)
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Mason, G., '2009 J.V. Barry Memorial Lecture: The penal politics of hatred' (2009), Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 42(3), pp.275-286
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Mason, G., 'Hate crime laws in Australia: Are they achieving their goals?' (2009), Criminal Law Journal, 33(6), 326-341

Mason, G., 'Victim attributes in hate crime law: Difference and the politics of justice' (2014), British Journal of Criminology, 54(2), pp.161-179
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Mason, G., 'Legislating against hate' (2014), in Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P. & Grieve, J. (2014) The Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime. London: Routledge

Mason, G. & Dyer, A., 'A negation of Australia’s fundamental values’: Sentencing prejudice-motivated crime' (2013), Melbourne University Law Review, 36(3), pp.871-914
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Mason, G. & Moran, L., '‘Bias crime policing: “The graveyard shift”’' (2019), International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 8(1), pp. 1-16
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Mason, G., Maher, J., McCulloch, J., Pickering, S., Wickes, R. & McKay, C., 'Policing hate crime: Understanding communities and prejudice' (2017), Oxon, UK; New York, NY: Routledge

Mason, G., McCulloch, J. & Maher, J., 'Policing hate crime: Markers for negotiating common ground in policy implementation' (2015), Policing and Society
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Mason, G., McCulloch, J. & Maher, J., 'Policing prejudice motivated crime: A research case study' (2014), in Chakraborti, N. & Garland, J. (Eds.) Responding to hate crime: The case for connecting policy and research. Policy Press.

Mason-Bish, H., 'Future challenges for hate crime policy: Lessons from the past' (2010), in Chakraborti, N. (ed.) (2010) Hate Crime: Concepts, policy, future directions, Devon: Willan Publishing

Mason-Bish, H., 'Examining the boundaries of hate crime policy' (2013), Criminal Justice Policy Review, 24(3), pp.297-316
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Matassa, M. & Newburn, T., 'Policing hate crime' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.42-43
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McCann, W.S &, Pimley, N., 'Eliminating Extremism: A Legal Analysis of Hate Crime and Terrorism Laws in the United States' (2019), Terrorism and Political Violence [online]
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McDonald, E., 'No straight answer: Homophobia as both an aggravating factor in New Zealand in homicide cases' (2006), Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, 37(2), pp.223-248
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McGhee, D., 'Joined-up government, “community safety” and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender “active citizens”' (2003), Critical Social Policy, 23(3), pp.345-374
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McLaughlin, E., 'Cause for concern: The policing of hate crime' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.38-39
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McManus, J., 'Systems not words? Some organisational response to hate crimes' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.44-45
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McNamara, L., 'Anti-vilification Laws: Protecting whom from what?' (1994), Socio-Legal Bulletin, 13, 28

McNamara, L., 'Criminalising racial hatred: Learning from the Canadian experience' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.198-210
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McNamara, L. & Solomon, T., 'The Commonwealth Racial Hatred Act 1995: Achievement or disappointment?' (1996), Adelaide Law Review, 18(2), pp.259-288
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McPhail, B. & Jenness, V., 'To charge or not to charge? That is the question: The pursuit of strategic advantage in prosecutorial decision-making surrounding hate crime' (2005), Journal of Hate Studies, 4(1), pp. 89-119
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McPhail, B.A. & DiNitto, D.M., 'Prosecutorial perspectives on gender-bias hate crimes' (2005), Violence Against Women, 11(9), pp.1162-1185
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Meagher, D., 'So far so good?: A critical evaluation of racial vilification laws in Australia' (2004), Federal Law Review, 32(2), pp.225-254
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Mellos, S.R., '‘Defining and recognising are not the same’: Challenges to tackling hate crime in a performance culture' (2009), British Journal of Community Justice, 7(3)
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