Publications: Criminal justice responses to hate crime

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Schweppe, J., Haynes, A. & Walters, M.A., 'Life cycle of a hate crime – Comparative report' (2018), Dublin: Irish Council for Civil Liberties
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Shirlow, P., Taylor, L.K., Merrilees, C.E., Goeke-Morey, M.C. & Cummings, E.M., 'Hate crime: Record or perception?' (2013), Space and Polity, 17(2), pp.237-252
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Silva, N., 'Breaking down barriers: NSW police beating anti-gay violence' (1996), New South Wales Police News, 76(9), 33

Simmons, K.C., 'Subverting symbolism: The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act and cooperative federalism' (2012), American Criminal Law Review, 49(4)
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Simons, K. W. , 'On equality, bias crimes and just deserts' (2000), The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-), 91(1), pp.237-268
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Sin, C.H., Sheikh, S. & Khanna, M., 'Police readiness for tackling hate crime against people with learning disabilities – Areas for improvement and examples of good practice' (2012), Safer Communities, 11(3), pp.145-153
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Smith, A., 'Moving against hate crime' (2014), The Criminal Law Review, 7, pp.475-476

Snowball, L. & Weatherburn, D., 'Does racial bias in sentencing contribute to Indigenous overrepresentation in prison? ' (2007), Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 40(3), pp.272-290
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Solomon, T., 'Problems in drafting legislation against racist activities' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.265-298
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Sosa, L., 'Now You See Me? The Visibility of Trans and Travesti Experiences in Criminal Procedures' (2020), Politics and Governance, 8(3), pp. 266-277
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Spalek, B., 'Communities, identities and crime' (2008), Bristol: The Policy Press.

Spencer, K.B., Charbonneau, A.K. & Glaser, J., 'Implicit bias and policing' (2015), Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(1), pp.50-63
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Spieldenner, A.R. & Glenn, C.L., 'Scripting hate crimes: Victim, space and perpetrator defining hate' (2014), Continuum, 28(1), pp.123-135
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Spohn, C., 'Race, crime, and punishment in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries' (2015), Crime and Justice, 44(1), pp.49-97
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Stanislas, P., 'Policing violent homophobia in the Caribbean and the British Caribbean diaspora: Postcolonial discourses and the limits of postmodernity' (2014), Interventions, 16(1), pp.135-156
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Stanko, E.A., 'Re-conceptualising the policing of hatred: Confessions and worrying dilemmas of a consultant' (2001), Law and Critique, 12(3), pp.309-329
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Stanton-Ife, J., 'Criminalising conduct with special reference to potential offences of stirring up hatred against disabled or transgender persons' (2013), London: Law Commission.
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Steen, S. & Cohen, M.A., 'Assessing the public’s demand for hate crime penalties' (2004), Justice Quarterly, 21(1), pp.91-124
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Stefanou-Haag, E., 'Antiracism: From legislation to education' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.185-197
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Storry, K., 'The implications of the Macpherson Report into the death of Stephen Lawrence' (2000), Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 12(1), pp.106-113
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Stotzer, R.L., 'Violence against transgender people: A review of United States data' (2009), Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(3), pp.170-179
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Strobl, R., Klemm, J. & Wurtz, S., 'Preventing hate crimes: Experiences from two East-German towns' (2005), British Journal of Criminology, 45(5), pp.634-646
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Strobl, S., Phillips, N., Banutai, E. & Reynolds, D., 'Film-making and police-minority relations: Slovenian police and Roma in Shanghai Gypsy' (2015), International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 4(4), pp.22-39
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Takach, R., 'Gay and lesbian inequality: The anti-vilification measures' (1994), Australasian Gay and Lesbian Law Journal, 4, 30

Taylor, P., Corteen, K., Ogden, C., & Morley, S., '‘Standing’ by: disability hate crime and the police in England' (2012), Criminal Justice Matters, 87(1), pp.46-47
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The Association of Chief Police Officers and Crown Prosecution Service, 'Joint disability hate crime data review' (2014)
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Thompson, S., 'Hate crimes against gays and lesbians: The New South Wales police response' (1997), in Mason, G. & Tomsen, S. (eds.) Homophobic Violence. Australia: Hawkins Press.

Tiby, E., 'Constructions of Homophobic hate crimes: Definitions, decisions, data' (2007), Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 8(2), pp.114-137
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Tiby, E., 'Constructions of homophobic hate crimes: Definitions, decisions, data' (2007), Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 8(2), pp.114-137
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Tomsen, S., 'Hatred, murder and male honour: Gay homicides and the “homosexual panic defence”' (1994), Criminology Australia, 6(2), 2

Tomsen, S. & Kirchengast, T., 'Victimhood, Truth and Criminal Justice Failure in Relation to Anti-Homosexual Violence and Killings in New South Wales' (2019), Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 31(2), pp. 181-193
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Trickett, L. & Hamilton, P., 'The policing of hate crime in Nottinghamshire' (2014)
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Tsesis, A., 'Contextualizing bias crimes: A social and theoretical perspective' (2003), Law & Social Inquiry, 28, pp.315-340
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Tunney, E., 'Misogyny and marginalization in criminal justice systems: Women’s experiences in two post-conflict societies' (2014), Journal of Hate Studies, 12(1), pp. 153-176
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Twomey, A., 'Laws against incitement to racial hatred in the United Kingdom' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.235-248
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Umbreit, M. S., Lewis, T., & Burns, H., 'A community response to 9/11 hate crime: Restorative justice through dialogue' (2003), Contemporary Justice Review, 6(4), pp.383-391
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Umbreit, M.S., Coates, R.B., & Vos, B., 'The impact of victim-offender mediation: Two decades of research' (2001), Federal Probation, 65(3), pp.29-35
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Valier, C., 'Punishment as a hate crime' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.30-31
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Vallini, A., 'Criminalizing Hate Speech to Avert Collective Violence? Working Hypotheses About the Offence of “Racist Propaganda” | [Criminalizzare L’Hate Speech per Scongiurare la Collective Violence? Ipotesi di Lavoro Intorno al Reato di “Propaganda Razzista”]' (2020), Studi sulla Questione Criminale, 15(1), pp. 33-64
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Vera Institute of Justice, 'Bias crime assessment: A tool and guidelines for law enforcement and concerned communities' (2018), National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice
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Victor, C., 'Anti-hate policy: All talk, no action' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.36-37
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Victorian Sentencing Advisory Council, 'Sentencing for offences motivated by hatred or prejudice' (2009)
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Vollaard, B. & Hamed, J., 'Why the police have an effect on violent crime after all: Evidence from the British Crime Survey' (2012), Journal of Law and Economics, 55(4), pp.901-924
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Walach, V., Divišová, V., Kalibová, K. & Kupka, P., 'Life cycle of a hate crime – Country report for Czech Republic' (2017), Prague: In IUSTITIA, o.p.s.
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Walker, S., 'Policing hate: The problematic expansion of Louisiana’s hate crime statute to include police officers' (2018), Louisiana Law Review, 78(4), pp.1413-1445
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Wallace, N., 'Reaching out' (2004), Police Review, 19, 22

Wallenberg, J.S., 'The impact of racial slurs and racism on the perceptions and punishment of violent crime' (2008), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(5), pp.685-701
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Walters, M.A., 'Hate crime and restorative justice: Exploring causes, repairing harms' (2014), Clarendon Studies in Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Walters, M.A., 'Conceptualizing ‘hostility’ for hate crime law: Minding ‘the minutiae’ when interpreting section 28(1)(a) of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998' (2014), Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 34(1), pp.47-74
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Walters, M.A., 'Hate crimes in Australia: Introducing punishment enhancers' (2005), Criminal Law Journal, 29(4), pp.201-216
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