Publications: Racist hate crime

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Tao, W., Li, J.-Y., Lee, Y. & He, M., 'Individual and collective coping with racial discrimination: What drives social media activism among Asian Americans during the COVID-19 outbreak' (2022), New Media and Society [online]
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Taras, R., '‘Islamophobia never stands still’: Race, religion, and culture' (2013), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(3), pp.417-433
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Tasmania Law Reform Institute, 'Racial vilification and racially motivated offences' (2010), Issues Paper No 16 (June 2010)
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Tasmania Law Reform Institute, 'Racial vilification and racially motivated offences' (2011), Final Report No. 14 (April 2011)
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Teeger, C., 'Ruptures in the rainbow nation: How desegregated South African schools deal with interpersonal and structural racism' (2015), Sociology of Education, 88(3), pp.226-243
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Teng, E.J., '“And This Is What He Did”' (2022), Prism, 19(1), pp. 215-223
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Tessler, H., Choi, M. & Kao, G., 'The Anxiety of Being Asian American: Hate Crimes and Negative Biases During the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2020), American Journal of Criminal Justice [online]
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Tessler, R.A., Langton, L., Rivara, F.P., Vavilala, M.S., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., 'Differences by Victim Race and Ethnicity in Race- and Ethnicity-Motivated Violent Bias Crimes: A National Study' (2018), Journal of Interpersonal Violence [online]
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Tichavakunda, A.A., 'Studying and challenging racism in higher education: Naming bad faith to understand the “logic” of racism' (2021), Education Sciences, 11(10), 602
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Titley, G., Nikunen, K. & Pantti, M., 'Shifting Formations, Formative Infrastructures: Nationalisms and Racisms in Media Circulation' (2021), Television and New Media, 22(2), pp. 103-111
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Tizard, B. & Pheonix, A., 'Black, white or mixed race? Race and racism in the lives of young people of mixed parentage' (2002), London: Routledge.

Tomsen, S., 'Hate crimes and masculine offending' (2001), Gay and Lesbian Law Journal, 10, pp.26-42
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Torres, S., 'Hate crimes against African Americans: The extent of the problem' (1999), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15, pp.48-63
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Treece, D., 'The Challenges for Anti-racists in Bolsonaro’s Brazil' (2021), Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies, 27(2), pp. 213-233
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Trickett, L., 'Reflections on gendered masculine identities intargeted violence against ethnic minorities' (2014), in Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P. & Grieve, J. (eds.) (2014) The Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime. London: Routledge

Trindade, L.V.P., 'Disparagement Humour and Gendered Racism on Social Media in Brazil' (2019), Ethnic and Racial Studies [online]
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Tsakona, V., Karachaliou, R. & Archakis, A.,, 'Liquid Racism in the Greek Anti-Racist Campaign #StopMindBorders' (2020), Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 8(2), pp. 232-261
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Tsri, K., 'Africans are not black: Why the use of the term ‘black’ for Africans should be abandoned' (2015), African Identities, pp.1-14
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Tucker, L., '‘It’s not just about the football’: Leading social change in a Sunday league football team' (2015), Sport in Society, 18(4), pp.410-424
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Tudor, A., 'Ascriptions of migration: Racism, migratism and Brexit' (2022), European Journal of Cultural Studies [online]
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Tyner, J.A., 'Hate-crimes as racial violence: A critique of the exceptional' (2016), Social and Cultural Geography, pp.1-19
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Tynes, B.M., Lozada, F.T., Smith, N.A. & Stewart, A.M., 'From racial microaggressions to hate crimes: A model of online racism based on the lived experiences of adolescents of color' (2018), Tynes, B.M., Lozada, F.T., Smith, N.A. & Stewart, A.M., From racial microaggressions to hate crimes: A model of online racism based on the lived experiences of adolescents of color (2018), Microaggression Theory: Influence and Implications, pp. 194-212
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Tynes, B.M., Rose, C.A., Hiss, S., Umana-Taylor, A.J., Mitchell, K. & Williams, D., 'Virtual environments, online racial discrimination, and adjustment among a diverse, school-based sample of adolescents' (2014), International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 6(3), pp.1-16
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Tyson, J., 'Levelling the playing field' (2015)
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Tzioumis, K., 'Detecting discrimination: A dynamic perspective' (2015), Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society)
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University of Western Sydney, 'Challenging racism: The Anti-Racism Research Project' (2011)
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Uviller, H.R., 'Making it worse: ‘Hate’ as an aggravating factor in criminal conduct' (2000), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(4), pp.761-767
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Uyheng, J., Bellutta, D. & Carley, K.M., 'Bots Amplify and Redirect Hate Speech in Online Discourse About Racism During the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2022), Social Media and Society, 8(3)
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Vachuska, K. & Brudvig, J., 'Discourse from #The Real UW: What tweets say about racial concerns at a predominately white institution' (2018), Social Sciences, 7(21), pp.1-13
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Van Dyke, N. & Tester, G., 'Dangerous climates: Factors associated with variation in racist hate crimes on college campuses' (2014), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(3), pp.290-309
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Van Sluytman, L., Spikes, P., Nandi, V., Van Tieu, H., Frye, V., Patterson, J. & Koblin, B., 'Ties that bind: Community attachment and the experience of discrimination among Black men who have sex with men' (2015), Culture, Health and Sexuality, pp.1-14
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Venäläinen, S., Virkki, T., 'Struggles for Moral Value and the Reproduction of Gendered and Racialised Hierarchies in Online Discussions of Violence' (2019), Sociological Review [online]
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Vera Santos, R.E., 'Hate crime and racial discrimination in Ecuador: The case of Michael Arce in ESMIL' (2021), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law [online]
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Vidra, Z. & Fox, J., 'Mainstreaming of racist anti-Roma discourses in the media in Hungary' (2014), Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 12(4), pp.437-455
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Vogel, B.L., 'Perceptions of hate: The extent to which a motive of “hate” influences attitudes of violent crimes' (2000), Journal of Crime and Justice, 23(2), pp.1-25
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Vrielink, J., '‘Islamophobia’ and the law: Belgian hate speech legislation and the wilful destruction of the Koran' (2014), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 14(1), pp.54-65
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Vysotsky, S., 'Uniting the right: Anti-immigration, organizing, and the legitimation of extreme racist organizations' (2014), Journal of Hate Studies, 12(1), pp. 129-151
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Wadsworth, E., Dhillon, K., Shaw, C., Bhui, K., Stansfeld, S. & Smith, A., 'Racial Discrimination, ethnicity and work stress' (2007), Occupational Medicine, 57(1), pp.18-24
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Wagner, G.J., Bogart, L.M., Galvan, F.H., Banks, D. & Klein, D.J., 'Discrimination as a key mediator of the relationship between posttraumatic stress and HIV treatment adherence among African American men' (2012), Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35(1), pp.8-18
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Walker. S., Delone. M., & Spohn, C. S., 'The color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America' (1999), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Wallenberg, J.S., 'The impact of racial slurs and racism on the perceptions and punishment of violent crime' (2008), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(5), pp.685-701
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Walpurga Koll, M.K., 'Hate crime legislation versus the legacy of Lynch Law in the U.S.: The struggle against a biased popular justice' (2009), Legal Narratives, pp.77-100
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Walters, M.A., 'Conceptualizing ‘hostility’ for hate crime law: Minding ‘the minutiae’ when interpreting section 28(1)(a) of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998' (2014), Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 34(1), pp.47-74
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Walters, M.A., 'Why the Rochdale Gang should have been sentenced as ‘hate crime’ offenders' (2013), Criminal Law Review, 2, pp.131-144
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Wang, S.C. & Santos, B.M.C., '“Go Back to China With Your (Expletive) Virus”: A Revelatory Case Study of Anti-Asian Racism During COVID-19' (2022), Asian American Journal of Psychology [online]
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Ward, L.W.M., 'A Critical Race Theory Perspective on Assaultive Speech in U.S. Campus Communities' (2022), Equity and Excellence in Education [online]
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Waxman, S.R., 'Racial Awareness and Bias Begin Early: Developmental Entry Points, Challenges, and a Call to Action' (2021), Perspectives on Psychological Science, 16(5), pp. 893-902
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Webster, 'Understanding race and crime' (2007), Open University Press

Webster, C., 'England and Wales' (2008), in J. Winterdyk & G. Antonopoulos (Eds.), Racist victimization: International reflections and perspectives (pp.67-88). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Weissinger, S. E., Mack, D.A. & Watson, E. (Eds.), 'Violence Against Black Bodies: An Intersectional Analysis of How Black Lives Continue to Matter' (2017), New York: Routledge
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