Publications: B

Billingham, P. & Bonotti, M., 'Introduction: Hate, Offence and Free Speech in a Changing World' (2019), Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 22(3), pp. 531-537
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Bird, G. (ed.), 'Racial harassment' (1992), National Centre for Crosscultural Studies in Law, Monash University

Birk, M., Gill, H. & Heer, K., 'De-Islamizing Sikhaphobia: Deconstructing structural racism in Wisconsin gurdwara shooting 10/12' (2015), Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 10(2), pp.97-106
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Birken, L., 'Homosexuality and totalitarianism' (1997), Journal of Homosexuality, 33(1), pp.1-16
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Birkett, M. & Espelage, D.L., 'Homophobic name-calling, peer-groups, and masculinity: The socialization of homophobic behavior in adolescents' (2015), Social Development, 24(1), pp.184-205
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Birkett, M., Newcomb, M.E. & Mustanski, B., 'Does it get better? a longitudinal analysis of psychological distress and victimization in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth' (2015), Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(3), pp.280-285
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Bjørgo, T. & Aasland Ravndal, J., 'Extreme-Right Violence and Terrorism: Concepts, Patterns, and Response' (2019), ICCT Policy Brief, September 2019
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Bjørgo, T. & Mareš, M., 'Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities' (2019), Abingdon: Routledge
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Bjørgo, T. & Silkoset, E., 'Threats and threatening approaches to politicians: A survey of Norwegian parliamentarians and cabinet ministers' (2018), Oslo: Norwegian Police University College. PHS Forskning, 2018(5)
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Blackwell, C.W., 'Belief in the ‘free choice’ model of homosexuality: A correlate of homophobia in registered nurses' (2008), Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(3), pp.31-40

Blair Woods, J. & Herman J.L., 'Anti-transgender hate crime' (2014), in Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P. & Grieve, J. (eds.) (2014) The Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime. London: Routledge

Blaisdell, B., 'Schools as racial spaces: Understanding and resisting structural racism' (2015), International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education
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Blake, M., 'Geeks and monsters: Bias crimes and social identity' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.121-139
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Blanco-Herrero, D. & Calderón, C.A., 'Spread and Reception of Fake News Promoting Hate Speech Against Migrants and Refugees in Social Media: Research Plan for the Doctoral Programme Education in the Knowledge Society' (2019), ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 949-955
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Blanuša, N. & Kulenović, E., 'Hate speech, contentious symbols and politics of memory: Survey research on Croatian citizens’ attitudes' (2018), Politicka Misao, 55(4), pp. 176-202
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Blaya, C., 'Cyberhate: A review and content analysis of intervention strategies' (2018), Aggression and Violent Behavior [online], pp. 1-10
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Blazak, R., 'Isn’t every crime a hate crime?: The case for hate crime laws' (2011), Sociology Compass, 5(4), pp.244-255
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Bledsoe, T.S. & Pacino, M.A., 'One community’s answer to hate' (2013), International Journal of Community Diversity, 12(2), pp.17-23
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Blee, K.M., 'Racial violence in the United States' (2005), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(4), pp.499-619
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Blee, K.M., 'The microdynamics of hate violence: Interpretive analysis and implications for responses' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.258-270
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Bleich, E., 'The rise of hate speech and hate crime laws in liberal democracies' (2011), Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(6), pp.917-934
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Bleich, E., 'Hate crime policy in western Europe – Responding to racist violence in Britain, Germany, and France' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.149-165
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Bleich, E., 'From race to hate: A historical perspective' (2018), in T. Brudholm & B. Schepelern Johansen (Eds), Hate, politics, law: Critical perspectives on combating hate (Chapter 1). New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Bleich, E., 'Hate crime policy in Western Europe: Responding to racist violence in Britain, Germany, and France' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.149-165
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Bleich, E. & Hart, R.K., 'Quantifying hate: The evolution of German approaches to measuring ‘hate crime’' (2008), German Politics, 17(1), pp.63-80
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Bleich, E. & Lambert, F., 'Why are racist associations free in some states and banned in others? Evidence from 10 liberal democracies' (2013), West European Politics, 36(1), pp.122-149
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Blondeel, K., de Vasconcelos, S., García-Moreno, C., Stephenson, R., Temmerman, M. & Toskin, I., 'Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: A systematic review' (2018), Bull World Health Organ, 96, pp.29–41
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Blosnich, J.R., Marsiglio, M.C., Gao, S., Gordon, A.J., Shipherd, J.C., Kauth, M., Brown, G.R. & Fine, M.J., 'Mental health of transgender veterans in US States with and without discrimination and hate crime legal protection' (2016), American Journal of Public Health, 106(3), pp.534-540
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Bobako, M., 'Semi-peripheral Islamophobias: The political diversity of anti-Muslim discourses in Poland' (2018), Patterns of Prejudice [online]
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Bocij, P. & McFarlane, L., 'Cyberstalking: The technology of hate' (2003), Police Journal, 76(3), pp.204-221
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Body-Gendrot, S., 'France' (2008), in J. Winterdyk & G. Antonopoulos (Eds.), Racist victimization: International reflections and perspectives (pp.89-112). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Boeckmann, J. & Turpin‐Petrosino, C., 'Understanding the harm of hate crime' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.207-225
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Boeckmann, R.J. & Liew, J., 'Hate speech: Asian American students’ justice judgments and psychological responses' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.363-381
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Boletsi, M., 'Europe and its discontents: Intra-European violence in Dutch literature after 9/11' (2017), in S. Frank (Ed.), 9/11 in European literature (pp.283-321). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
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Bones, P.D.C., 'Perceptions of vulnerability: A target characteristics approach to disability, gender, and victimization' (2012), Deviant Behaviour, 34(9), pp.727-750
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Bonnet, F. & Caillault, C., 'The invader, the enemy within and they-who-must-not-be-named: How police talk about minorities in Italy, the Netherlands and France' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(7), pp.1185-1201
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Borell, K., 'When is the time to hate? A research review on the impact of dramatic events on Islamophobia and Islamophobic hate crimes in Europe' (2015), Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, pp.1-13
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Borgeson, K. & Valeri, R. (Eds.), 'Skinhead history, identity, and culture' (2017), New York, NY: Routledge
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Bortone, R. & Cerquozzi, F., 'L’hate speech al tempo di Internet' (2017), Aggiornamenti Sociali, 12/68 [online]
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Bortone, R. & Pistecchia, A., 'Hate speech e antiziganismo. Una riflessione sulle discriminazioni nell’era dei social' (2017), IDOS, Dossier Statistico Immigrazione, Confronti, pp. 233-237
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Bortone, R. & Pistecchia, A., 'Online hate speech, marginalized groups and minorities: Considerations about types of discrimination in the age of social networks and media' (2018), Dynamics and Policies of Prejudice from the Eighteenth to the Twenty-first Century
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Boske, C., 'Preparing school leaders to interrupt racism at various levels in educational systems' (2015), International Journal of Multicultural Education, 17(1), pp.121-142
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Bostock, J., 'Getting away with murder' (2001), OpenMind, 112, pp.22-23

Botcherby, S., Glen, F., Iganski, P., Jochelson, K. & Lagou, S., 'Equality groups’ perceptions and experience of crime: Analysis of the British Crime Survey 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10' (2011), Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.
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Bourne, J., 'Does legislating against racial violence work? ' (2002), Race & Class, 44(2), pp.81-85
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Bouzerdan, C. & Whitten-Woodring, J., 'Killings in context: An analysis of the news framing of femicide' (2018), Human Rights Review, 19(2), pp.211–228
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Bowling, B., 'Racial harassment and the process of victimisation: Conceptual and methodological implications for the Local Crime Survey' (1993), British Journal of Criminology, 33(2), pp.231-250
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Bowling, B., 'Violent racism: Victimization, policing, and social context' (1998), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bowling, B. & Phillips, C., 'Racism, crime and justice' (2002), Harlow: Pearson.

Boyd, E.A., Berk, R.A. & Hamner, K.M., '‘Motivated by hatred or prejudice’: Categorization of hate-motivated crimes in two police divisions' (1996), Law and Society Review, 30(4), pp.819-850
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