Publications: L

Lee, S., 'Willingness to cooperate with police in hate crime cases: the impact of police legitimacy, police encounters and race/ethnicity' (2024), Policing [online]
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Lee, S., 'Older Asian Adults with Limited English Proficiency and Racism Through the Lens of Asian Human Service Workers' (2023), Journal of Gerontological Social Work [online]
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Lee, S. & Waters, S.F., 'Asians and Asian Americans’ experiences of racial discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts on health outcomes and the buffering role of social support' (2021), Stigma and Health, 6(1), pp. 70-78
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Lee, S., Choi, J. & Ahn, C., 'Hate prompts participation: Examining the dynamic relationship between affective polarization and political participation' (2023), New Media and Society [online]
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Lee, S., Jung, D., Park, C., Lee, S. & Lim, H., 'Alternative Speech: Complementary Method to Counter-Narrative for Better Discourse' (2023), IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDMW, pp. 1438–1442
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Lee, Y., Vue, S., Seklecki, R. & Ma, Y., 'How did Asian Americans respond to negative stereotypes and hate crimes?' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.271-293
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Lee, Y.J., Lau, S.B., Bersamira, C.S. & Yamauchi, J., 'Anti-Asian Racism and COVID-19 Impact on Older Adults: The Voices of Social Workers' (2023), Journal of Gerontological Social Work [online]
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Lee-Won, R.J., White, T.N., Song, H., Lee, J.Y. & Smith, M.R., '‘Source magnification of cyberhate: affective and cognitive effects of multiple-source hate messages on target group members’' (2019), Media Psychology [online]
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Leets, L., 'Experiencing hate speech: Perceptions and responses to Anti-Semitism and Antigay speech' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.341-361
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Legal and Constitutional Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia - Senate, 'Canberra Racial Hatred Bill 1994 report' (1995)

Legg, S. & Citizens, N., '‘No Place for Hate’: Community-Led Research and the Geographies of Nottingham Citizens’ Hate Crime Commission' (2019), Social and Cultural Geography [online]
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Lehman, B., '‘Stopping the Hate: Applying Insights on Bullying Victimization to Understand and Reduce the Emergence of Hate in Schools’' (2019), Sociological Inquiry [online]
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Lemke, R., 'Opposing, Denouncing, Insulting: Sexuality-Related Dynamics of Opinion on the Internet [Ablehnen, Anprangern, Beleidigen: Sexualitätsbezogene Meinungsdynamiken im Internet]' (2022), Zeitschrift fur Sexualforschung, 35(4), pp. 221-228
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Lenardič, J. & Pahor De Maiti, K., 'Grammatical and Pragmatic Aspects of Slovenian Modality in Socially Unacceptable Facebook Comments | Slovnični in pragmatični vidiki naklonskosti v slovenščini v družbeno nesprejemljivih komentarjih na Facebooku' (2023), Slovenscina 2.0, 11(1), pp. 33–68
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Lengel, L. & Smidi, A., 'How affect overrides fact: Anti-Muslim politicized rhetoric in the post-truth era' (2018), in L. Zhang & C. Clark (Eds.). Affect, emotion, and rhetorical persuasion in mass communication (Chapter 8). New York, NY: Routledge
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Lentin, R., 'Ireland: Racial state and crisis racism' (2007), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), pp.610-627
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Lentin, A., '(Not) doing race : ‘Casual racism’, ‘bystander antiracism’ and ‘ordinariness’ in Australian racism studies' (2017), in M. Boese & V. Marotta (Eds.), Critical reflections on migration, ‘race’ and multiculturalism: Australia in a global context (pp. 125-142)
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Leo, C.O., Santoso, B.J. & Pratomo, B.A., 'Enhancing Hate Speech Detection for Social Media Moderation: A Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning Algorithms' (2023), 2023 International Conference on Advanced Mechatronics, Intelligent Manufacture and Industrial Automation, ICAMIMIA 2023 - Proceedings, pp. 960–964
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Leonard, W., Mitchell, A., Pitts, M. & Patel, S., 'Coming forward – The underreporting of heterosexist violence and same sex partner abuse in Victoria' (2009), Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society (ARCSHS).
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Leonardelli, E., Menini, S. & Tonelli, S., 'DH-FBK @ HaSpeeDe2: Italian hate speech detection via self-training and oversampling' (2020), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2765
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Leonenko, T.Y., Leonenko, M.I., Shyian, O.Y., Yurchyshyn, V.M. & Shkuta, O.O., '‘Pathological’ Religiosity Phenomenon as Manifestation of Individual’s Deviant Behavior: Religious Hatred or Discord Motive in Commission of Crimes in the Religious Denomination Sphere' (2019), Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, 10(1), pp. 295-306
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Lepoutre, M., 'Hateful Counterspeech' (2022), Ethical Theory and Moral Practice [online]
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Lepoutre, M., 'Democratic Speech in Divided Times' (2021), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Lepoutre, M., 'Hate Speech Laws: Expressive Power Is Not the Answer' (2020), Legal Theory [online]
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Lepoutre, M., 'Discursive optimism defended' (2023), Politics, Philosophy and Economics [online]
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Lepoutre, M., Vilar-Lluch, S., Borg, E. & Hansen, N., 'What is Hate Speech? The Case for a Corpus Approach' (2023), Criminal Law and Philosophy [online]
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Letouze, P. & Mendes, D.B., 'Positive Semiotics Construction: The Intersectionality of Fat Black Women, from Fatphobia, Through Fat Appraisal to Fat Praise' (2024), International Journal for the Semiotics of Law [online]
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Lettieri, J., Logie, K. & Paccione-Frometa, J., 'Noise Complaints and Land Rezoning as a Predictor of Hate Crimes in a New York City Borough' (2023), Journal of Interpersonal Violence [online]
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Leung, M., 'Points of departure: Re-examining the discursive formation of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990' (2018), Patterns of Prejudice, 52(1), pp.39-57
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Levi, E., Mariani, R.D. & Patriarca, F., 'Hate at First Sight? Dynamic Aspects of the Electoral Impact of Migration: The Case of Ukip' (2019), Journal of Population Economics [online]
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Levin, B., 'The original web of hate: Revolution Muslim and American homegrown extremists' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1609-1630
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Levin, B., 'The vindication of hate violence victims via criminal and civil adjudications' (2002), Journal of Hate Studies, 1(1), pp. 133-165
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Levin, B., 'Hate crimes: Worse by definition' (1999), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(1), pp.6-21
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Levin, B., 'Reassessing laws on hate violence against the homeless' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1715-1728
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Levin, J., 'From thrill to defensive hate crimes: The impact of September 11, 2001' (2014), Journal of Hate Studies, 12(1), pp. 65-72
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Levin, B., 'Extremism and the constitution: How America’s legal evolution affects the response to extremism' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.714-754
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Levin, B., 'From slavery to hate crime laws: The emergence of race and status based protection in American criminal law' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.227-245
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Levin, B. & Reitzel, J.D., 'Report to the nation: Hate crimes rise in U.S. cities and counties in time of division and foreign interference' (2018), Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism; California State University, San Bernardino
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Levin, B., & Amster, S., 'Making hate history: Hate crime and policing in America’s most diverse city' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.329-348
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Levin, B., Nolan, J.J. & Perry, B., 'Disrupting the mantra of multiculturalism: Hate crime in Canada' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1637-1654
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Levin, B., Nolan, J.J. & Perst, K., 'U.S. Hate Crime Trends: What Disaggregation of Three Decades of Data Reveals About a Changing Threat and an Invisible Record' (2022), Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 112(4),3, pp. 749-800
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Levin, J. & Idler, E.L., 'Islamophobia and the public health implications of religious hatred' (2018), AJPH, 108(6), pp.718–719
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Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate crimes: The rising tide of bigotry and bloodshed' (2001), Westview Press Inc.

Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate Crimes' (2022), in L.R. Kurtz (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Third Edition): Volume 2: Violence and Nonviolence (pp. 28-34), Cambridge, MA: Academic Press
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Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Police response' (1993), Hate Crimes, pp.159-178
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Levin, J. & Rabrenovic, G., 'Hate crimes and ethnic conflict: An introduction' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.575-587
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Levin, J. & Reichelmann, A., 'From thrill to defensive motivation: The role of group threat in the changing nature of hate-motivated assaults' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1546-1561
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Levin, J., & McDevitt, J. , 'Hate crimes revisited: America’s war on those who are different' (2002), Boulder; Oxford: Westview Press

Levin, J., Rabrenovic, G., Ferraro, V., Doran, T., & Methe, D., 'When a crime committed by a teenager becomes a hate crime: Results from two studies' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.246-257
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Levy, A., Galinsky, A., Nguyen, C.Q., Saguy, T., Ikizer, E.G. & Dovidio, J.F., 'Ingroup love, outgroup hate, and the gateway group effect: Comparing the direct and indirect impact of dual versus single identification' (2023), PloS one, 18(8), e0287631
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