Publications: L

Levin, B., 'Hate crimes: Worse by definition' (1999), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(1), pp.6-21
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Levin, B., 'Reassessing laws on hate violence against the homeless' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1715-1728
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Levin, B., 'Extremism and the constitution: How America’s legal evolution affects the response to extremism' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.714-754
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Levin, B., 'From slavery to hate crime laws: The emergence of race and status based protection in American criminal law' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.227-245
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Levin, B. & Reitzel, J.D., 'Report to the nation: Hate crimes rise in U.S. cities and counties in time of division and foreign interference' (2018), Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism; California State University, San Bernardino
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Levin, B., & Amster, S., 'Making hate history: Hate crime and policing in America’s most diverse city' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.329-348
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Levin, B., Nolan, J.J. & Perry, B., 'Disrupting the mantra of multiculturalism: Hate crime in Canada' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1637-1654
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Levin, J. & Idler, E.L., 'Islamophobia and the public health implications of religious hatred' (2018), AJPH, 108(6), pp.718–719
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Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate crimes: The rising tide of bigotry and bloodshed' (2001), Westview Press Inc.

Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Police response' (1993), Hate Crimes, pp.159-178
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Levin, J. & Rabrenovic, G., 'Hate crimes and ethnic conflict: An introduction' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.575-587
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Levin, J. & Reichelmann, A., 'From thrill to defensive motivation: The role of group threat in the changing nature of hate-motivated assaults' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1546-1561
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Levin, J., & McDevitt, J. , 'Hate crimes revisited: America’s war on those who are different' (2002), Boulder; Oxford: Westview Press

Levin, J., Rabrenovic, G., Ferraro, V., Doran, T., & Methe, D., 'When a crime committed by a teenager becomes a hate crime: Results from two studies' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.246-257
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Levy, B.L. & Levy, D.L., 'When love meets hate: The relationship between state policies on gay and lesbian rights and hate crime incidence' (2016), Social Science Research [online]
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Lewis, C. S., 'Tough on hate?: The cultural politics of hate crimes' (2013), New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press
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Lewis, C.S., 'Tough-on-crime tolerance: The cultural criminalization of bigotry in the Post-Civil Rights Era' (2012), Critical Criminology, 20(3), pp.275-292
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Lewis, T.T., Kravitz, H.M., Janssen, I. & Powell, L.H., 'Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and caucasian women' (2011), American Journal of Epidemiology, 173(11), pp.1223-1231
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Liebe, U., Hundeshagen, C., Beyer, H. & Cramon-Taubadel, S.V., 'Context effects and the temporal stability of stated preferences' (2016), Social Science Research, 60, pp.135-147
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Lieberman, M., 'Hate crime laws: Punishment to fit the crime: A response to Jesse Larner' (2010), Dissent, 57(3), pp.81-84
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Lieberman, J.D., Arndt, J., Personius, J. & Cook, A., 'Vicarious annihilation: The effect of mortality salience on perceptions of hate crimes' (2001), Law and Human Behaviour, 25(6), pp.547-566
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Light, M. & Iceland, J., 'The social context of racial boundary negotiations: Segregation, hate crime, and Hispanic racial identification in Metropolitan America' (2016), Sociological Science, 3, pp.61-84
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Likupe, G., 'Experiences of African nurses and the perception of their managers in the NHS' (2015), Journal of Nursing Management, 23(2), pp.231-241
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Lilienthal, G. & Ahmad, N., 'Hate crime and social media in the UK' (2016), Computer and Telecommunications Law Review, 22(7), pp.188-193

Lincoln, R., 'Book reviews (Faces of hate: Hate crime in Australia by Cunneen, C. et al.)' (1999), Journal of Sociology, 35(1), pp.100-102
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Lindsay, T. & Danner, S., 'Accepting the unacceptable: The concept of acceptance in work with the perpetrators of hate crime' (2008), European Journal of Social Work, 11(1), pp.43-56
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Lingiardi, V., Carone, N., Semeraro, G., Musto, C., D'Amico, M. & Brena, S., 'Mapping Twitter hate speech towards social and sexual minorities: a lexicon-based approach to semantic content analysis' (2019), Behaviour and Information Technology [online]
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Lister, S. & Wall, D., 'The realities of elder abuse' (2006), in Wahidin, A. & Cain, M. (eds.) Ageing, Crime and Society, Devon: Willan Publishing.

Lockyer, B., 'Reporting hate crimes – The California Attorney General’s civil rights commission on hate crimes' (2001), (Final Report), State of California Department of Justice - Office of the Attorney General
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Logan, M.H., 'Hate crime perpetrators: The psychopath and the perseverator' (2018), Violence and Gender [online]
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Logvinov, M., 'Rechtsextreme Gewalt: Erklärungsansätze – Befunde – Kritik' (2017), Wiesbaden: Springer VS
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Lombardi, E., Wilchins, R.A., Priesing, D. & Malouf, D., 'Gender violence: Transgender experiences with violence and discrimination' (2002), Journal of Homosexuality, 42(1), pp.89-101
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López Romo, R. & Fernández Soldevilla, G., 'From ethnic exclusion to terrorism? The case of radical Basque nationalism' (2018), Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies 24(3), pp. 443-459
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Lord Bracadale, 'Independent review of hate crime legislation in Scotland: Final report' (2018), Edinburgh, Scotland: The Scottish Government
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Loutzenheiser, L.W., '‘Who are you calling a problem?’: Addressing transphobia and homophobia through school policy' (2015), Critical Studies in Education, 56(1), pp.99-115
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Lozano-Verduzco,, I., Fernández-Niño, J.A. & Baruch-Domínguez, R., 'Association between internalized homophobia and mental health indicators in LGBT individuals in Mexico City' (2017), Salud Mental, 40(5), pp. 219-225
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Lucassen, L. & Stremmelaar, A., 'Antisemitism and Immigration in Western Europe Today: is there a connection? The case of the Netherlands' (2018), Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility and Future (EVZ), Berlin & Pears Institute for the Study of Antisemitism, University of London
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Lucini, B., 'The other side of resilience to terrorism: A portrait of a resilient-healthy city' (2017), Springer International Publishing
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Lühr, M., Streib, H. & Klein, C., 'Inter-religious prejudice in context: Prejudice against black persons, homosexuals and women, and the role of the violence legitimizing norms of masculinity' (2018), in H. Streib & C. Klein (Eds.), Xenosophia and religion. Biographical and statistical paths for a culture of welcome (pp.203-229). Springer, Cham.
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Lumeng, J.C., Forrest, P., Appugliese, D.P., Kaciroti, N. Corwyn, R.F. & Bradley, R.H., 'Weight status as a predictor of being bullied in third through sixth grades' (2010), Pediatrics, 125(6), pp.e1301-1307
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Lumsden, K. & Morgan, H.M., 'Cyber-trolling as symbolic violence: Deconstructing gendered abuse online' (2018), In N. Lombard (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of gender and violence (pp.121-132). London: Routledge

Lumsden, K., Goode, J. & Black, A., '‘I will not be thrown out of the country because I’m an immigrant’: Eastern European migrants’ responses to hate crime in a semi-rural context in the wake of Brexit' (2018), Sociological Research Online [online]
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Lunin, I.I., 'Striving for LGBTQ rights in Russian psychology and society: A personal narrative' (2017), Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), pp.35-41
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Luqiu, L.R. & Yang, F., 'Islamophobia in China: News coverage, stereotypes, and Chinese Muslims’ perceptions of themselves and Islam' (2018), Asian Journal of Communication [online]
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Lyons, C.J., 'Individual perceptions and the social construction of hate crimes: A factorial survey' (2008), The Social Science Journal, 45(1), pp.107-131
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Lyons, C.J., 'Community (dis)organization and racially motivated crime' (2007), American Journal of Sociology, 113(3), pp.815-863
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Lyons, C.J., 'Defending turf: Racial demographics and hate crime against Blacks and Whites' (2008), Social Forces, 87(1), pp.357-385
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Lyons, C.J., 'Stigma or sympathy? Attributions of fault to hate crime victims and offenders' (2006), Social Psychology Quarterly, 69(1), pp.39-59
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Lyons, C.J. & Roberts, A., 'The difference “hate” makes in clearing crime: An event history analysis of incident factors' (2014), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(3), pp.268-289
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Løland, I., 'Between utopia and dystopia: Sectarianization through revolution and war in Syrian refugee narratives' (2019), Religions, 10(3) [online]
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