Publications: L

Leader, T., Mullen, B. & Rice, D., 'Complexity and valence in Ethnophaulisms and exclusion of ethnic out-groups: What puts the “hate” into hate speech?' (2009), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(1), pp.170-182
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Leander, N.P., Kreienkamp, J., Agostini, M., Stroebe, W., Gordijn, E.H. & Kruglanski, A.W., 'Biased Hate Crime Perceptions Can Reveal Supremacist Sympathies' (2020), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(32), pp. 19072-19079
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Lee, J., 'Asian Americans, affirmative action & the rise in anti-Asian hate' (2021), Daedalus, 150(2), pp. 180-198
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Lee, H., 'Relentless villains or fervent netizens?: The alt-right community in Korea, Ilbe' (2021), Internet Histories [online]
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Lee, Kristi, 'Hate Crimes and Their Impact on Mental Health for Targeted Individuals and Communities.' (2020)
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Lee Badgett, M.V., 'The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination' (1995), Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48(4), pp.726-739
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Lee, B.A. & Schreck, C.J., 'Danger on the streets: Marginality and victimization among homeless people' (2005), American Behavioral Scientist, 48(8), pp.1055-1081
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Lee, E. & Johnstone, M., 'Lest We Forget: Politics of Multiculturalism in Canada Revisited during COVID-19' (2021), Critical Sociology [online]
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Lee, K. & Ram, S., 'PERSONA: Personality-based deep learning for detecting hate speech' (2020), International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2020 - Making Digital Inclusive: Blending the Local and the Global
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Lee, S. & Waters, S.F., 'Asians and Asian Americans’ experiences of racial discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts on health outcomes and the buffering role of social support' (2021), Stigma and Health, 6(1), pp. 70-78
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Lee, Y., Vue, S., Seklecki, R. & Ma, Y., 'How did Asian Americans respond to negative stereotypes and hate crimes?' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.271-293
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Lee-Won, R.J., White, T.N., Song, H., Lee, J.Y. & Smith, M.R., '‘Source magnification of cyberhate: affective and cognitive effects of multiple-source hate messages on target group members’' (2019), Media Psychology [online]
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Leets, L., 'Experiencing hate speech: Perceptions and responses to Anti-Semitism and Antigay speech' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.341-361
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Legal and Constitutional Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia - Senate, 'Canberra Racial Hatred Bill 1994 report' (1995)

Legg, S. & Citizens, N., '‘No Place for Hate’: Community-Led Research and the Geographies of Nottingham Citizens’ Hate Crime Commission' (2019), Social and Cultural Geography [online]
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Lehman, B., '‘Stopping the Hate: Applying Insights on Bullying Victimization to Understand and Reduce the Emergence of Hate in Schools’' (2019), Sociological Inquiry [online]
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Lengel, L. & Smidi, A., 'How affect overrides fact: Anti-Muslim politicized rhetoric in the post-truth era' (2018), in L. Zhang & C. Clark (Eds.). Affect, emotion, and rhetorical persuasion in mass communication (Chapter 8). New York, NY: Routledge
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Lentin, R., 'Ireland: Racial state and crisis racism' (2007), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), pp.610-627
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Lentin, A., '(Not) doing race : ‘Casual racism’, ‘bystander antiracism’ and ‘ordinariness’ in Australian racism studies' (2017), in M. Boese & V. Marotta (Eds.), Critical reflections on migration, ‘race’ and multiculturalism: Australia in a global context (pp. 125-142)
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Leonard, W., Mitchell, A., Pitts, M. & Patel, S., 'Coming forward – The underreporting of heterosexist violence and same sex partner abuse in Victoria' (2009), Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society (ARCSHS).
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Leonardelli, E., Menini, S. & Tonelli, S., 'DH-FBK @ HaSpeeDe2: Italian hate speech detection via self-training and oversampling' (2020), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2765
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Leonenko, T.Y., Leonenko, M.I., Shyian, O.Y., Yurchyshyn, V.M. & Shkuta, O.O., '‘Pathological’ Religiosity Phenomenon as Manifestation of Individual’s Deviant Behavior: Religious Hatred or Discord Motive in Commission of Crimes in the Religious Denomination Sphere' (2019), Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, 10(1), pp. 295-306
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Lepoutre, M., 'Democratic Speech in Divided Times' (2021), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Lepoutre, M., 'Hate Speech Laws: Expressive Power Is Not the Answer' (2020), Legal Theory [online]
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Leung, M., 'Points of departure: Re-examining the discursive formation of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990' (2018), Patterns of Prejudice, 52(1), pp.39-57
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Levi, E., Mariani, R.D. & Patriarca, F., 'Hate at First Sight? Dynamic Aspects of the Electoral Impact of Migration: The Case of Ukip' (2019), Journal of Population Economics [online]
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Levin, B., 'The original web of hate: Revolution Muslim and American homegrown extremists' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1609-1630
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Levin, B., 'The vindication of hate violence victims via criminal and civil adjudications' (2002), Journal of Hate Studies, 1(1), pp. 133-165
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Levin, B., 'Hate crimes: Worse by definition' (1999), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(1), pp.6-21
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Levin, B., 'Reassessing laws on hate violence against the homeless' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1715-1728
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Levin, J., 'From thrill to defensive hate crimes: The impact of September 11, 2001' (2014), Journal of Hate Studies, 12(1), pp. 65-72
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Levin, B., 'Extremism and the constitution: How America’s legal evolution affects the response to extremism' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.714-754
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Levin, B., 'From slavery to hate crime laws: The emergence of race and status based protection in American criminal law' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.227-245
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Levin, B. & Reitzel, J.D., 'Report to the nation: Hate crimes rise in U.S. cities and counties in time of division and foreign interference' (2018), Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism; California State University, San Bernardino
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Levin, B., & Amster, S., 'Making hate history: Hate crime and policing in America’s most diverse city' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.329-348
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Levin, B., Nolan, J.J. & Perry, B., 'Disrupting the mantra of multiculturalism: Hate crime in Canada' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1637-1654
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Levin, J. & Idler, E.L., 'Islamophobia and the public health implications of religious hatred' (2018), AJPH, 108(6), pp.718–719
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Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate crimes: The rising tide of bigotry and bloodshed' (2001), Westview Press Inc.

Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Police response' (1993), Hate Crimes, pp.159-178
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Levin, J. & Rabrenovic, G., 'Hate crimes and ethnic conflict: An introduction' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.575-587
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Levin, J. & Reichelmann, A., 'From thrill to defensive motivation: The role of group threat in the changing nature of hate-motivated assaults' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1546-1561
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Levin, J., & McDevitt, J. , 'Hate crimes revisited: America’s war on those who are different' (2002), Boulder; Oxford: Westview Press

Levin, J., Rabrenovic, G., Ferraro, V., Doran, T., & Methe, D., 'When a crime committed by a teenager becomes a hate crime: Results from two studies' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.246-257
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Levy, B.L. & Levy, D.L., 'When love meets hate: The relationship between state policies on gay and lesbian rights and hate crime incidence' (2016), Social Science Research [online]
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Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B., 'Culture-Driven Emotional Profiles and Online Discourse Extremism' (2020), Pragmatics and Society, 11(2), pp. 262-291
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Lewis, C. S., 'Tough on hate?: The cultural politics of hate crimes' (2013), New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press
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Lewis, C.S., 'Tough-on-crime tolerance: The cultural criminalization of bigotry in the Post-Civil Rights Era' (2012), Critical Criminology, 20(3), pp.275-292
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Lewis, T.T., Kravitz, H.M., Janssen, I. & Powell, L.H., 'Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and caucasian women' (2011), American Journal of Epidemiology, 173(11), pp.1223-1231
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Li, M., 'Exemplifying Power Matters: The Impact of Power Exemplification of Transgender People in the News on Issue Attribution, Dehumanization, and Aggression Tendencies' (2021), Journalism Practice [online]
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Li, S., Zaidi, N.A., Liu, Q. & Li, G., 'Neighbours and Kinsmen: Hateful Users Detection with Graph Neural Network' (2021), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 12712 LNAI, pp. 434-446
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