Publications

B

Bones, P.D.C., 'Perceptions of vulnerability: A target characteristics approach to disability, gender, and victimization' (2012), Deviant Behaviour, 34(9), pp.727-750
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Bonnet, F. & Caillault, C., 'The invader, the enemy within and they-who-must-not-be-named: How police talk about minorities in Italy, the Netherlands and France' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(7), pp.1185-1201
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Bonotti, M. & Seglow, J., 'Freedom of speech: A relational defence' (2022), Philosophy and Social Criticism [online]
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Borah, P., Keib, K., Trude, B., Binford, M., Irom, B. & Himelboim, I., '“You are a disgrace and traitor to our country”: incivility against “The Squad” on Twitter' (2022), Internet Research [online]
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Borell, K., 'When is the time to hate? A research review on the impact of dramatic events on Islamophobia and Islamophobic hate crimes in Europe' (2015), Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, pp.1-13
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Borgeson, K. & Valeri, R. (Eds.), 'Skinhead history, identity, and culture' (2017), New York, NY: Routledge
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Bortone, R. & Cerquozzi, F., 'L’hate speech al tempo di Internet' (2017), Aggiornamenti Sociali, 12/68 [online]
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Bortone, R. & Pistecchia, A., 'Hate speech e antiziganismo. Una riflessione sulle discriminazioni nell’era dei social' (2017), IDOS, Dossier Statistico Immigrazione, Confronti, pp. 233-237
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Bortone, R. & Pistecchia, A., 'Online hate speech, marginalized groups and minorities: Considerations about types of discrimination in the age of social networks and media' (2018), Dynamics and Policies of Prejudice from the Eighteenth to the Twenty-first Century
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Boske, C., 'Preparing school leaders to interrupt racism at various levels in educational systems' (2015), International Journal of Multicultural Education, 17(1), pp.121-142
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Bostock, J., 'Getting away with murder' (2001), OpenMind, 112, pp.22-23

Botcherby, S., Glen, F., Iganski, P., Jochelson, K. & Lagou, S., 'Equality groups’ perceptions and experience of crime: Analysis of the British Crime Survey 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10' (2011), Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.
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Botelho, A., Hale, S.A. & Vidgen, B., 'Deciphering Implicit Hate: Evaluating Automated Detection Algorithms for Multimodal Hate' (2021), Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021, pp. 1896-1907
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Botha, Joanna, 'Go back to Europe! – The Battle of Senekal.' (2020)
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Botha, J., '‘Swartman’: Racial Descriptor or Racial Slur? Rustenburg Platinum Mine v SAEWA obo Bester [2018]' (2020), Constitutional Court Review, 10(1), pp. 353-377
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Botha, J., 'A Hate Crime Model for the South African Context' (2020), in H. Strydom & J. Botha (Eds.) Select Essays on Governance and Accountability Issues in Public Law (pp. 33- 54), Stellenbosch: African Sun Media
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Bouazizi, M., Niida, N. & Ohtsuki, T., 'All-in-One Hate Speech Detectors May Not Be What You Want' (2021), ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 3451498, pp. 165-170
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Boulouard, Z., Ouaissa, M. & Ouaissa, M., 'Machine Learning for Hate Speech Detection in Arabic Social Media' (2022), EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing, pp. 147-162
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Bourne, J., 'Does legislating against racial violence work? ' (2002), Race & Class, 44(2), pp.81-85
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Bourou, M., '“Diversity is a code word. And what it means is white genocide!” The cinematic representation of neofascist rhetoric in four dramatic race-related films' (2022), Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 10(1), pp. 219-239
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Bousquet, C., 'Words That Harm: Defending the Dignity Approach to Hate Speech Regulation' (2022), Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 35(1), pp. 31-57
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Bouzerdan, C. & Whitten-Woodring, J., 'Killings in context: An analysis of the news framing of femicide' (2018), Human Rights Review, 19(2), pp.211–228
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Bowling, B., 'Racial harassment and the process of victimisation: Conceptual and methodological implications for the Local Crime Survey' (1993), British Journal of Criminology, 33(2), pp.231-250
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Bowling, B., 'Violent racism: Victimization, policing, and social context' (1998), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bowling, B. & Phillips, C., 'Racism, crime and justice' (2002), Harlow: Pearson.

Boyd, E.A., Berk, R.A. & Hamner, K.M., '‘Motivated by hatred or prejudice’: Categorization of hate-motivated crimes in two police divisions' (1996), Law and Society Review, 30(4), pp.819-850
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Bozay, K. & Borstel, D., 'Ungleichwertigkeitsideologien in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft' (2017), VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
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Br Ginting, P.S., Irawan, B. & Setianingsih, C., 'Hate Speech Detection on Twitter Using Multinomial Logistic Regression Classification Method' (2019), Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things and Intelligence System, IoTaIS 2019, 8980379, pp. 105-111
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Braddock, K., 'Vaccinating Against Hate: Using Attitudinal Inoculation to Confer Resistance to Persuasion by Extremist Propaganda' (2019), Terrorism and Political Violence [online]
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Braddock, K., Hughes, B., Goldberg, B. & Miller-Idriss, C., 'Engagement in subversive online activity predicts susceptibility to persuasion by far-right extremist propaganda' (2022), New Media and Society [online]
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Bradley, J.M., 'Sectarianism, anti-sectarianism and Scottish football' (2015), Sport in Society, 18(5), pp.588-603
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Bradley, M.S., 'Symbolizing hate: The extent and influence of organized hate group indicators' (2007), Journal of Crime and Justice, 30(1), pp.1-15
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Braun, A., 'Hungary: From “Goulash Communism” to Pluralistic Democracy' (1997), in A. Braun (Ed.) The Extreme Right: Freedom and Security at Risk (pp. 201-219). Abingdon & New York: Routledge
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Braun, A., 'Poland: The Vanguard of Change' (1997), in A. Braun (Ed.) The Extreme Right: Freedom and Security at Risk (pp. 185-200). Abingdon & New York: Routledge
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Braun, A., 'Russia: The Land Inbetween' (1997), in A. Braun (Ed.) The Extreme Right: Freedom and Security at Risk (pp. 161-184). Abingdon & New York: Routledge
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Braun, A., 'The Incomplete Revolutions: The Rise of Extremism in East-Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union' (1997), in A. Braun (Ed.) The Extreme Right: Freedom and Security at Risk (pp. 138-160). Abingdon & New York: Routledge
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Braune, J., 'Void and idol: A critical theory analysis of the neo-fascist “Alt-Right”' (2019), Journal of Hate Studies, 15(1), pp. 11-37
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Brax, D., 'Motives, reasons, and responsibility in hate/bias crime legislation' (2016), Criminal Justice Ethics [online], pp.1-19
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Brax, D., 'Hate crime concepts and their moral foundations: A universal framework' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.49-64), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Brax, D. & Munthe, C., 'The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: Introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1687-1695
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Bray, K., Braakmann, N. & Wildman, J., 'Austerity, welfare cuts and hate crime: Evidence from the UK’s age of austerity' (2022), Journal of Urban Economics, 103439
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Brearley, M., 'The persecution of Gypsies in Europe' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.588-599
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Breazu, P. & Machin, D., 'Racism is not just hate speech: Ethnonationalist victimhood in YouTube comments about the Roma during Covid-19' (2022), Language in Society [online]
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Breen, D. & Nel, J.A., 'South Africa – A home for all? The need for hate crime legislation' (2011), South African Crime Quarterly, 38
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Breen, D., Lynch, I., Nel, J. & Matthews, I., 'Hate crime in transitional societies: The case of South Africa' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.126-141), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Brekke, T., 'Islamophobia and antisemitism are different in their potential for globalization' (2021), Journal of Religion and Violence, 9(1), pp. 80-100
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Brennan, F., 'Punishing Islamophobic hostility: Are any lessons to be learned from racially hostile crimes?' (2003), Journal of Civil Liberties, 8(1), pp.28-50
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Brennan, F., 'Racially motivated crime: The response of the criminal justice system' (1999), Criminal Law Review, Jan, pp.17-28
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Brennan, F., 'Legislating against internet race hate' (2009), Information & Communications Technology Law, 18(2), pp.123-153
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Brennan, F., 'www.hatecrime.co Laws uncritical engagement' (2009), Information & Communications Technology Law, 18(2), pp.75-78
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