Publications

B

Burnap, P. & Williams, M.L., 'Hate Speech, machine classification and statistical modelling of information flows on Twitter: Interpretation and communication for policy decision making' (2014), The Internet, Policy & Politics Conferences.
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Burnap, P. & Williams, M.L., 'Us and them: Identifying cyber hate on Twitter across multiple protected characteristics' (2016), EPJ Data Science, 5(1)
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Burnett, J., 'Racial violence and the Brexit state' (2017), Race and Class, 58(4), pp.85-97
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Burnett, J., 'Britain: Racial violence and the politics of hate' (2013), Race & Class, 54(4), pp.5-21
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Burney, E., 'Using the law on racially aggravated offences' (2003), Criminal Law Review, Jan, pp.28-36

Burney, E. & Rose, G., 'Racist offences – how is the law working?: The implementation of the legislation on racially aggravated offences in the Crime and Disorder Act 1998' (2002), Home Office Research Study 244. London: Home Office
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Burns, S.L., Harper, S.R., Hildebrand, E.S. & Moore, M.N., 'Behavioural responses to hate crimes: A study of Asians and Asian Americans on a university campus' (2000), Journal of the Indiana University Student Personnel Association, pp.64-78
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Burridge, A., Sacks, J. & Warner, M., 'Confronting religious violence: A counternarrative' (2018), Waco: Baylor University Press, 2018, Project MUSE
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Burt, C.H., Simons, R.L. & Gibbons, F.X., 'Racial discrimination, ethnic-racial socialization, and crime: A micro-sociological model of risk and resilience' (2012), American Sociological Review, 77(4), pp.648-677
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Burton, M., Marshal, P., Chisolm, J., Sucato, S. & Friedman, S., 'Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: A longitudinal analysis' (2013), Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(3), pp.394-402
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Butler, J., 'Excitable speech: A politics of the performative' (2021), London: Routledge
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Büttner, C., 'Follow-up of right-wing violence for those affected and possibilities for support by specialized victim counseling centers' (2018), Knowledge Creates Democracy - Open Access Series of the IDZ
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Byers, B. D., Warren-Gordon, K. & Jones, J. A., 'Predictors of hate crime prosecutions: An analysis of data from the National Prosecutors Survey and state-level bias crime laws' (2012), Race and Justice, 2(3), pp.203-219
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Byers, B., Crider, B.W. & Biggers, G.K., 'Bias crime motivation: A study of hate crime and offender neutralization techniques used against the Amish' (1999), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(1), pp.78-96
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Byers, B.D. & Crider, B.W., 'Hate crimes against the Amish: A qualitative analysis of bias motivation using routine activities theory' (2002), Deviant Behavior, 23(2), pp.115-148
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Byers, B.D. & Zeller, R.A., 'Official hate crime statistics: An examination of the “epidemic hypothesis”' (2001), Journal of Crime and Justice, 24(2), pp.73-85
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Byers, B.D. & Zeller, R.A., 'An examination of official hate crime offense and bias motivation statistics for 1991-1994' (1997), Journal of Crime and Justice, 20(1), pp.91-106
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Byers, B.D., & Jones, J.A., 'The impact of the terrorist attacks of 9/11 on anti-Islamic hate crime' (2007), Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 5(1), pp.43-56
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C

Cabeldue, M. K., Cramer, R. J., Kehn, A., Crosby, J. W. & Anastasi, J. S., 'Measuring attitudes about hate: Development of the hate crime beliefs scale' (2016), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, pp.1-30
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Cabeldue, M. K., Cramer, R. J., Kehn, A., Crosby, J. W., & Anastasi, J. S., 'Measuring Attitudes About Hate: Development of the Hate Crime Beliefs Scale' (2018), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(23), pp.3656–3685
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Cabellos Espiérrez, M.Á., 'Freedom of expression and legal limits: A new stage along the road towards establishing constitutionally consistent interpretative criteria | [Libertad de expresión y límites penales: Una nueva fase en el camino hacia la fijación de criterios interpretativos constitucionalmente coherentes]' (2020), Revista Catalana de Dret Public, 2020(61), pp. 30-49
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Caiani, M., Carlotti, B. & Padoan, E., 'Online Hate Speech and the Radical Right in Times of Pandemic: The Italian and English Cases' (2021), Javnost [online]
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Cainkar, L. & Najeeb, J., 'Taking on Hate: Muslim Women Build a Community-Driven Hate Watch' (2019), Journal of Middle East Women's Studies, 15(3), pp. 402-408
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Caldera, H.M.M., Meedin, G.S.N. & Perera, I., 'A peer recommendation model to avoid hate speech engagements in multiplex social networks' (2020), 2020 From Innovation to Impact, FITI 2020
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Caldera, H.M.M., Meedin, G.S.N. & Perera, I., 'Time series based trend analysis for hate speech in Twitter during COVID 19 pandemic' (2020), 20th International Conference on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions, ICTer 2020 – Proceedings, 9325491, pp. 286-287
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Calderón, C.A., de la Vega, G. & Herrero, D.B., 'Topic Modeling and Characterization of Hate Speech Against Immigrants on Twitter Around the Emergence of a Far-Right Party in Spain' (2020), Social Sciences, 9(11),188, pp. 1-19
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Callander, D., Newman, C.E. & Holt, M., 'Is sexual racism really racism? Distinguishing attitudes toward sexual racism and generic racism among gay and bisexual men' (2015), Archives of Sexual Behavior
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Callender, K.A., 'Understanding antigay bias from a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective' (2015), Journal of Homosexuality, pp.1-22
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Camden Council, '“Camden: No place for hate”: An executive summary report on hate crime in Camden' (2015)
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Cameron, L. & Swift, H., 'One Globe Kids in action: Evaluating an online platform for changing social attitudes in young children' (2017), Equality and Human Rights Commission
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Campaign Against Antisemitism, 'National Antisemitic Crime Audit 2016 in review' (2017)
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Campbell, R., 'Beyond hate: Policing sex work, protection and hate crime' (2017), in T. Sanders & M. Laing, Policing the sex industry: Protection, paternalism and politics. New York, NY: Routledge
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Campbell, C. & Mena, J.A., 'LGBTQ+ Structural Stigma and College Counseling Center Website Friendliness' (2021), Journal of College Counseling, 24(3), pp. 241-255
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Campbell, J., Cothren, D., Rogers, R., Kistler, L., Osowski, A., Greenauer, N. & End, C., 'Sport fans’ impressions of gay male athletes' (2011), Journal of Homosexuality, 58(5), pp.597-607
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Campbell, R., Smith, L., Leacy, B., Ryan, M. & Stoica, B., 'Not Collateral Damage: Trends in Violence and Hate Crimes Experienced by Sex Workers in the Republic of Ireland' (2020), Irish Journal of Sociology [online]
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Campo-Engelstein, L., 'Rape as a hate crime: An analysis of New York law' (2016), Hypatia, 31(1), pp.91-106
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Campos Zamora, F.J., 'Is There a Right to Blaspheme? On Freedom of Expression and Hate Speech | [¿Existe un Derecho a Blasfemar? Sobre Libertad de Expresión y Discurso del Odio]' (2020), Doxa. Cuadernos de Filosofia del Derecho, (41), pp. 281-295
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Canfield-Davis, K., Gardiner, M. E., & Joki, R. A., 'Social justice leadership in action: The case of Tony Stewar' (2009), Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), pp. 77-98
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Cánovas-García, M., García-Díaz, J.A. & Valencia-García, R., 'Automatic Misogyny Detection with Linguistic and Morphological Features in Spanish' (2020), Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1309, pp. 30-42
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Cao, R., Lee, R.K.-W. & Hoang, T.-A., 'DeepHate: Hate Speech Detection via Multi-Faceted Text Representations' (2020), WebSci 2020 - Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Web Science, pp. 11-20
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Capewell, C., Ralph, S. & Bonnett, L., 'The continuing violence towards disabled people' (2015), Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs
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Capitaine, B. & Helly, D., 'Hate through a Canadian conservative movement worldview. The Christian heritage party on the internet | [El odio al otro a través de la visión del mundo de un movimiento conservador canadiense. El Christian heritage party en internet]' (2021), Politica y Sociedad, 58(2), e74509
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Carastathis, A., 'The politics of austerity and the affective economy of hostility: Racialised gendered violence and crises of belonging in Greece' (2015), Feminist Review, 109(1), pp.73-95
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Card, C., 'Is penalty enhancement a sound idea?' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.195-214
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Carels, R.A. & Musher-Eizenman, D.R., 'Individual differences and weight bias: Do people with an anti-fat bias have a pro-thin bias?' (2010), Body Image, 7(3), pp.143-148
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Carlen, P., 'Homelessness' (2014), in Atkinson, R. (Ed.) Shades of Deviance: A Primer on Crime, Deviance and Social Harm. Routledge.

Carlson, C.R., 'Hate Speech as a Structural Phenomenon' (2020), First Amendment Studies [online]
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Carlson, C.R., 'Misogynistic hate speech and its chilling effect on women’s free expression during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign' (2019), Journal of Hate Studies, 14(1), pp. 97-111
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Carney, K.M., 'Rape: The paradigmatic hate crime' (2001), St. John's Law Review, 75(2), pp.315-355
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Carr, J., 'Recording and reporting racist hate crime: Police and civil society responses' (2017), in A. Haynes, J. Schweppe, & S. Taylor (Eds.), Critical perspectives on hate crime (pp.369-391). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
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