Publications: 2021

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Nguyen, T.T., Huang, D., Michaels, E.K., Glymour, M.M., Allen, A.M. & Nguyen, Q.C., 'Evaluating associations between area-level Twitter-expressed negative racial sentiment, hate crimes, and residents’ racial prejudice in the United States' (2021), SSM - Population Health, 13, 100750
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Nikolaou, D., 'Same-sex marriage laws, LGBT hate crimes, and employment discrimination charges' (2021), Southern Economic Journal [online]
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Nizaruddin, F., 'Role of Public WhatsApp Groups Within the Hindutva Ecosystem of Hate and Narratives of “CoronaJihad”' (2021), International Journal of Communication. 15, pp. 1102-1119
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Nor, M.W.M. & Gale, P., 'Growing Fear of Islamisation: Representation of Online Media in Malaysia' (2021), Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs [online]
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Nugent, W.R., Abrams, T.E. & Joseph, A.A., 'The Relationship between Violent Political Rhetoric and Mass Shootings' (2021), Journal of Social Service Research [online]
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Obermaier, M., Schmuck, D. & Saleem, M., 'I’ll be there for you? Effects of Islamophobic online hate speech and counter speech on Muslim in-group bystanders’ intention to intervene' (2021), New Media and Society [online]
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Obiora, H.C., Aboh, S.C. & Dioka, B.O., 'Critical discourse analysis of selected Nigerian political hate speeches' (2021), Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 12(3), pp. 494-500
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Oboler, A. & Casanovas, P., 'The Web of Data’s Role in Legal Ecosystems to Address Violent Extremism Fuelled by Hate Speech in Social Media' (2021), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 13048 LNAI, pp. 230-246
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Okolie, A.-M., Enyiazu, C. & Nnamani, K.E., 'Campaign propaganda, electoral outcome and the dynamics of governance in the post-2015 presidential election in Nigeria' (2021), Cogent Social Sciences, 7(1), 1922180
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Omidosu, J. & Kyobe, M., 'Towards a harm-based framework to evaluate Cyberhate' (2021), 2021 Conference on Information Communications Technology and Society, ICTAS 2021 – Proceedings, 9395008, pp. 16-20
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Oroh, A.J., Bandung, Y. & Zagi, L.M., 'Detection of the Key Actor of Issues Spreading Based on Social Network Analysis in Twitter Social Media' (2021), Proceedings - 2021 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Wireless and Mobile, APWiMob 2021, 9435268, pp. 206-212
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Ortega-Sánchez, D., Blanch, J.P., Quintana, J.I., de la Cal, E.S. & de la Fuente-Anuncibay, R., 'Hate speech, emotions and gender identities: A study of social narratives on Twitter with trainee teachers' (2021), International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(8), 4055
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Östling, E.A.W., '‘The wrath of God on children of disobedience’: COVID-19 in the theology and ideology of the Westboro Baptist Church' (2021), Approaching Religion, 11(2), pp. 82-97
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Owuamalam, C.K. & Matos, A.S., 'Heterosexual men in Trump’s America downplay compassion more for masculine (than for feminine) gay victims of hate crime: Why?' (2021), European Journal of Social Psychology [online]
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Paasch-Colberg, S. & Strippel, C., '“The Boundaries are Blurry…”: How Comment Moderators in Germany See and Respond to Hate Comments' (2021), Journalism Studies [online]
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Paasch-Colberg, S., Strippel, C., Trebbe, J. & Emmer, M., 'From insult to hate speech: Mapping offensive language in German user comments on immigration' (2021), Media and Communication, 9(1), pp. 171-180
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Palmer, N.A. & Kutateladze, B.L., 'What Prosecutors and the Police Should Do About Underreporting of Anti-LGBTQ Hate Crime' (2021), Sexuality Research and Social Policy [online]
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Pane, M.M.M.M.P., Siregar, C.C.S., Rumeser, J.A.A.J. & Aag Gea, A.A., 'The performance mapping for the viewpoint of hate-speech on YouTube in Millenials (A Case Study of Students in A Private University)' (2021), ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, PartF168985, pp. 108-114
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Pap, A.L., 'Neglect, Marginalization, and Abuse: Hate Crime Legislation and Practice in the Labyrinth of Identity Politics, Minority Protection, and Penal Populism' (2021), Nationalities Papers, 49(2), pp. 221-239
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Paredes, J.N., Simari, G.I., Martinez, M.V. & Falappa, M.A., 'Detecting malicious behavior in social platforms via hybrid knowledge- and data-driven systems' (2021), Future Generation Computer Systems, 125, pp. 232-246
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Parihar, A.S., Thapa, S. & Mishra, S., 'Hate Speech Detection Using Natural Language Processing: Applications and Challenges' (2021), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics, ICOEI 2021, 9452882, pp. 1302-1308
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Pariyani, B., Shah, K., Shah, M., Vyas, T. & Degadwala, S., 'Hate speech detection in Twitter using natural language processing' (2021), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Communication Technologies and Virtual Mobile Networks, ICICV 2021, 9388496, pp. 1146-1152
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Park, S. & Kim, J., 'Tweeting about abusive comments and misogyny in South Korea following the suicide of Sulli, a female K-pop star: Social and semantic network analyses' (2021), Profesional de la Informacion, 30(5), e300505

Park, S., Han, S., Kim, J., Molaie, M.M., Vu, H.D., Singh, K., Han, J., Lee, W. & Cha, M., 'COVID-19 Discourse on Twitter in Four Asian Countries: Case Study of Risk Communication' (2021), Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(3), e23272
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Paschalides, D., Pallis, G. & DIkaiakos, M.D., 'POLAR: A holistic framework for the modelling of polarization and identification of polarizing topics in news media' (2021), Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2021, pp. 348-355
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Paul, C. & Bora, P., 'Detecting Hate Speech Using Deep Learning Techniques' (2021), International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 12(2), pp. 619-623
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Paz, M.A., Mayagoitia-Soria, A. & González-Aguilar, J.-M., 'From Polarization to Hate: Portrait of the Spanish Political Meme' (2021), Social Media and Society, 7(4)
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Paz-Rebollo, M.-A., Cáceres-Zapatero, M.-D. & Martín-Sánchez, I., 'Subscription to digital press as a barrier to hate speech | [Suscripción a la prensa digital como contención a los discursos de odio]' (2021), Profesional de la Informacion, 30(6), e300613
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Pearson, G., 'A Beautiful Law for the Beautiful Game? Revisiting the Football Offences Act 1991' (2021), Journal of Criminal Law, 85(5), pp. 362-374
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Peixoto, E.M., de Azevedo Oliveira Knupp, V.M., Soares, J.R.T., Messina M.E.D., de Mello Andrade L.M., de Melo L.C.S., de Figueiredo Bezerra D., de Castro C.R.V., da Silva L.M.T., Fernandes B., Jalil E.M., Friedman R.K., de Moura Silva C., Filho E.J.A., Grinsztejn B.G.J., Moreira R.I., de Mattos Rafael Russo, R. & de Souza Velasque, L., 'Interpersonal Violence and Passing: Results from a Brazilian Trans-specific Cross-sectional Study' (2021), Journal of Interpersonal Violence [online]
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Pelletier, J. (Ed.), 'Hate Crimes in the United States' (2021), Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers
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Pérez, A., 'Rethinking Hate Speeches and their Patients Through Animalization and its Stigmatizing Discursive Power | [REPENSANDO LOS DISCURSOS DEL ODIO Y SUS RECEPTORES A TRAVÉS DE LA ANIMALIZACIÓN Y SU PODER DISCURSIVO ESTIGMATIZANTE]' (2021), Azafea, 23, pp. 13-38
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Pérez-Arredondo, C. & Graells-Garrido, E., 'Twitter and abortion: Online hate against pro-choice female politicians in Chile' (2021), Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 9(1), pp. 127-154
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Pérez-Escolar, M. & Noguera-Vivo, J.M. (Eds.), 'Hate Speech and Polarization in Participatory Society' (2021), London: Routledge
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Pérez-Landa, G.I., Loyola-González, O. & Medina-Pérez, M.A., 'An explainable artificial intelligence model for detecting xenophobic tweets' (2021), Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(22), 10801
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Perifanos, K. & Goutsos, D., 'Multimodal hate speech detection in Greek social media' (2021), Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 5(7),34
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Perry, B. & Samuels-Wortley, K., '”We’re not where we should be”: Enhancing law enforcement responses to hate crime' (2021), Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 63(2), pp. 68-98
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Peters, C. & Allan, S., 'Weaponizing Memes: The Journalistic Mediation of Visual Politicization' (2021), Digital Journalism [online]
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Petrescu, A., Truica, C.-O., Apostol, E.-S. & Karras, P., 'Sparse Shield: Social Network Immunization vs. Harmful Speech' (2021), International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Proceedings, pp. 1426-1436
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Piatkowska, S.J. & Lantz, B., 'Temporal Clustering of Hate Crimes in the Aftermath of the Brexit Vote and Terrorist Attacks: A Comparison of Scotland and England and Wales' (2021), British Journal of Criminology, 61(3), pp. 648-669
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Pickles, J., 'Supporting LGBT+ People Experiencing Hate: Perspectives from LGBT+ Youth and Community Workers' (2021), Sociological Research Online [online]
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Pilkington, H., 'Why Should We Care What Extremists Think? The Contribution of Emic Perspectives to Understanding the “right-wing extremist” Mind-Set' (2021), Journal of Contemporary Ethnography [online]
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Piñeiro-Otero, T. & Martínez-Rolán, X., 'Step outside and say that: Analysis of hate speech against women on Twitter | [Eso no me lo dices en la calle. Análisis del discurso del odio contra las mujeres en Twitter]' (2021), Profesional de la Informacion, 30(5), e300502
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Pintak, L., Bowe, B.J. & Albright, J., 'Influencers, Amplifiers, and Icons: A Systematic Approach to Understanding the Roles of Islamophobic Actors on Twitter' (2021), Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly [online]
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Plaza-del-Arco, F.M., Molina-González, M.D., Ureña-López, L.A. & Martín-Valdivia, M.T., 'Comparing Pre-Trained Language Models for Spanish Hate Speech Detection' (2021), Expert Systems with Applications, 166, 114120
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Plaza-Del-Arco, F.M., Molina-Gonzalez, M.D., Urena-Lopez, L.A. & Martin-Valdivia, M.T., 'A multi-task learning approach to hate speech detection leveraging sentiment analysis' (2021), IEEE Access, 9, 9509436, pp. 112478-112489
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Prasad, N., Saha, S. & Bhattacharyya, P., 'A Multimodal Classification of Noisy Hate Speech using Character Level Embedding and Attention' (2021), Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 2021-July
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Pribanic-Smith, E.J. & Schroeder, J., 'Breaking the White Circle: How the Press and Courts Quieted a Chicago Hate Group, 1949–1952' (2021), American Journalism, 38(4), pp. 416-449
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Pronoza, E., Panicheva, P., Koltsova, O. & Rosso, P., 'Detecting ethnicity-targeted hate speech in Russian social media texts' (2021), Information Processing and Management, 58(6), 102674
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Provazník, J., '“True” verbal hate crimes| [Pravé verbální trestné činy z nenávisti]' (2021), Casopis pro Pravni Vedu a Praxi, 28(4), pp. 657-694
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