Publications: Causes of hate crime

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McCall, P.L. & Parker, K.F., 'A dynamic model of racial competition, racial inequality, and interracial violence' (2005), Sociological Inquiry, 75(2), pp.273–293
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McDevitt, J., Levin, J. & Bennett, S., 'Hate crime offenders: An expanded typology' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.303-317
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McPhail, B.A., 'Hating hate: Policy implications of hate crime legislation' (2000), Social Service Review, 74(4), pp.635-653
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Meddaugh, P.M. & Kay, J., 'Hate speech or “reasonable racism?” The other in Stormfront' (2009), Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 24(4), pp.251-268
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Medina, R.M., Nicolosi, E.A., Brewer, S. & Moore, E., 'A geographical analysis of socioeconomic and ideological drivers of hate crime in the United States' (2021), International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research, 12(2), pp. 39-56
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Mellos, S.R., '‘Defining and recognising are not the same’: Challenges to tackling hate crime in a performance culture' (2009), British Journal of Community Justice, 7(3)
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Miller, A.J., 'Student perceptions of hate crimes' (2001), American Journal of Criminal Justice, 25(2), pp.293-307
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Minkkinen, P., 'Otherness and difference: On the cultural logic of racial tolerance' (1992), Law and Critique, 3(2), pp.147-167
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Molnar, L., 'The Law of the Jungle: The Online Hate-speech Against the Roma in Romania' (2021), Victims and Offenders [online]
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Moran, L., Skeggs, B., Tyrer, P. & Corteen, K. , 'Sexuality and the politics of violence and safety' (2004), London: Routledge.

Morewitz, S.J., 'Hate crimes' (2008), Death Threats and Violence, pp.102-118
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Morgan, F., Ferrante, A., Broadhurst, R. & Loh, N., 'Inter-racial offending models: A response to Reidpath and Diamond' (1998), Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 31(2), pp.196-203
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Moses, A.D., 'Paranoia and partisanship: Genocide studies, Holocaust historiography, and the ‘apocalyptic conjuncture’' (2011), The Historical Journal, 54(2), pp.553-583
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Nugent, W.R., Abrams, T.E. & Joseph, A.A., 'The Relationship between Violent Political Rhetoric and Mass Shootings' (2021), Journal of Social Service Research [online]
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Obermaier, M. & Schmuck, D., 'Youths as targets: Factors of online hate speech victimization among adolescents and young adults' (2022), Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 27(4), zmac012
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Olzak, S., 'The political context of competition: Lynching and urban racial violence' (1990), Social Forces, 69(2), pp.395-421
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O’Nions, H., 'What lies beneath: Exploring links between asylum policy and hate crime in the UK' (2010), Liverpool Law Review, 31(3), pp.233-257
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Perry, B., 'Where do we go from here? Researching hate crime' (2003), Internet Journal of Criminology
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Perry, B., 'In the name of hate: Understanding hate crimes' (2001), New York: Routledge.

Perry, B., 'The sociology of hate: Theoretical approaches' (2009), in B. Perry (Ed.), Hate Crimes (pp.55-76), Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers

Perry, B., 'Counting – and countering – hate crime in Europe' (2010), European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 18(4), pp.349-367
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Perry, B., 'Defending the color line: Racially and ethnically motivated hate crime' (2002), American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), pp.72-92
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Perry, B. & Alvi, S., '‘We are all vulnerable’: The in terrorem effects of hate crimes' (2012), International Review of Victimology, 18(1), pp.57-71
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Perry, B. & Scrivens, R., 'White Pride Worldwide: Constructing global identities online' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.65-78), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Perry, B. (ed.), 'Hate and bias crime: A reader' (2003), New York: Routledge.

Perry, B., Akca, D., Karakus, F. & Bastug, M., 'Planting Hate Speech to Harvest Hatred: How Does Political Hate Speech Fuel Hate Crimes in Turkey?' (2020), International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 9(2)
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Perry, B., Akca, D., Karakus, F. & Bastug, M.F., 'Planting Hate Speech to Harvest Hatred: How Does Political Hate Speech Fuel Hate Crimes in Turkey?' (2020), International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 9(2)
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Piatkowska, S.J., Messner, S.F., Hövermann, A., 'Black Out-Group Marriages and Hate Crime Rates: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of U.S. Metropolitan Areas' (2019), Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency [online]
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Piazza, J.A., 'Politician Hate Speech and Domestic Terrorism' (2020), International Interactions [online]
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Pieterse, T, Stratford, V. & Nel, J.A., 'Relationship Between Symbolic Violence and Overt Violence in Hate Incidents in South Africa' (2018), African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 16(2), 31-43
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Pinderhughes, H., 'The anatomy of racially motivated violence in New York City: A case study of youth in Southern Brooklyn' (1993), Social Problems, 40(4), pp.478-492
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Plumm, K.M., Potter, S. & Terrance, C.A., 'Perceptions of bias-motivated assault against bisexual individuals' (2015), Journal of Bisexuality, 15(2), pp.248-267
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Plumm, K.M., Terrance, C.A., Henderson, V.R., & Ellingson, H., 'Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation' (2010), Journal of Homosexuality, 57(2), pp.267-286
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Power, C., 'Irish Travellers: Ethnicity, racism and pre-sentence reports' (2003), Probation Journal, 50(3), pp.252-266
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Poynting, S., & Mason, V., 'The resistable rise of Islamophobia: Anti-Muslim racism in the UK and Australia before 11 September 2001' (2007), Journal of Sociology, 43(1), pp.61-86
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Pupcenoks, J., Grillo, M.C. & Ji, Q., 'Haters gonna hate: How symbolic and psychological variables explain attitudes towards immigrants' (2021), International Journal on Minority and Group Rights [online]
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Quent, M. & Schulz, P., 'Rechtsextremismus in lokalen Kontexten: Vier vergleichende Fallstudien' (2015), VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
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Quillian, L., 'Prejudice as a response to perceived group threat: Population composition and anti-immigrant and racial prejudice in Europe' (1995), American Sociological Review, 60(4), pp.586-611
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Quraishi, M., 'Muslims and crime: A comparative study' (2005), Aldershot: Ashgate

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Rabrenovic, G., 'Introduction: Responding to hate violence: New challenges and solutions' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.143-148
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Ray, L. & Smith, D., 'Racist violence as hate crime' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.6-7
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Rees, Y.P.M., Kurtenbach, S., Rees, J.H. & Zick, A., 'Intergroup contact and conflict in a climate of exclusion: An interview study in the ethnically super-homogenous German town of Bautzen' (2022), Journal of Applied Social Psychology [online]
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Reichelmann, A.V. & Costello, M., 'When Patriot Becomes Hate-triot: The Relationship Between American Identity and the Production of Cyberhate' (2021), American Journal of Criminal Justice [online]
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Reidpath, D.D. & Diamond, M.R., 'Models of inter-racial offending: An evaluation' (1998), Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 31(1), pp.27-37
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Roberts, C., Innes, M., Williams, M., Tregidga, J. & Gadd, D., 'Understanding who commits hate crime and why they do it' (2013), Welsh Government Social Research
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Roxburgh, A., 'Preachers of hate: The rise of the far right' (2002), London: Gibson Square Books

Roxell, L., 'Hate, threats, and violence. A register study of persons suspected of hate crime' (2011), Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 12(2), pp.198-215
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Ryan, E. & Leeson, T., 'Hate groups and hate crime' (2011), International Review of Law & Economics, 31(4), pp.256-262
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Shakespeare, T., 'Blaming the victim: Disability hate crime' (2012), The Lancet: London
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Shirlow, P., Taylor, L.K., Merrilees, C.E., Goeke-Morey, M.C. & Cummings, E.M., 'Hate crime: Record or perception?' (2013), Space and Polity, 17(2), pp.237-252
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