Publications: Causes of hate crime

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Smångs, M., 'Interracial status competition and Southern lynching, 1882-1930' (2016), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(10), pp.1849-1868
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Spalek, B., 'Communities, identities and crime' (2008), Bristol: The Policy Press.

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Šram, Z., 'The development of a 9-item scale to measure anti-immigrant attitude toward the Middle East refugees' (2020), Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 22(2), pp. 26-32
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Stacey, M., 'Distinctive characteristics of sexual orientation bias crimes' (2011), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(15), pp.3013-3032
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Stechemesser, A., Levermann, A. & Wenz, L., 'Temperature impacts on hate speech online: evidence from 4 billion geolocated tweets from the USA' (2022), The Lancet Planetary Health, 6(9), pp. e714-e725
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Strain, C.B., 'Evil black guns: Hate, instrumentality, and the neutrality of firearms' (2013), Journal of Hate Studies, 11(1), pp. 51-72
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Szendro, B., 'Suicide, Social Capital, and Hate Groups in the United States' (2021), World Affairs [online]
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Taylor, P., Corteen, K., Ogden, C., & Morley, S., '‘Standing’ by: disability hate crime and the police in England' (2012), Criminal Justice Matters, 87(1), pp.46-47
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Tomsen, S., 'Victims, perpetrators and fatal scenarios: A research note on anti-homosexual male homicides' (2002), International Review of Victimology, 9(3), pp.253-271
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Tsesis, A., 'Contextualizing bias crimes: A social and theoretical perspective' (2003), Law & Social Inquiry, 28, pp.315-340
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Tucker, S., 'Hate crime and the city' (2010), Policing and Society, 20(1), pp.140-141
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Turpin-Petrosino, C., 'Hateful sirens… Who hears their song? An examination of student attitudes toward hate groups and affiliation potential' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.281-301
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Uviller, H.R., 'Making it worse: ‘Hate’ as an aggravating factor in criminal conduct' (2000), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(4), pp.761-767
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Valeri, R.M. & Borgeson, K. (Eds.), 'Hate crimes: Victims, motivations and typologies' (2018), Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press
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Venäläinen, S., Virkki, T., 'Struggles for Moral Value and the Reproduction of Gendered and Racialised Hierarchies in Online Discussions of Violence' (2019), Sociological Review [online]
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Vergani, M., Goodhardt, D., Link, R., Adamczyk A., Freilich, J.D. & Chermak, S., 'When and How Does Anti-Semitism Occur? the Different Trigger Mechanisms Associated with Different Types of Criminal and Non-Criminal Hate Incidents' (2021), https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2021.1968283
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von Schulthess, B., 'Violence in the streets: Anti-lesbian assault and harassment in San Francisco' (1992), Herek, G.M. & Berrill, K. (eds.), 'Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men' (1992), USA: Sage Publications

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Wachs, S., Wettstein, A., Bilz, L. & Gámez-Guadix, M., 'Adolescents’ motivations to perpetrate hate speech and links with social norms | [Motivos del discurso de odio en la adolescencia y su relación con las normas sociales]' (2022), Comunicar, 30(71), pp. 1-12
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Wagner, U., Tachtsoglou, S., Kotzur, P.F., Friehs, M.-T. & Kemmesies, U., 'Proportion of Foreigners Negatively Predicts the Prevalence of Xenophobic Hate Crimes Within German Districts' (2019), Social Psychology Quarterly [online]
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Walpurga Koll, M.K., 'Hate crime legislation versus the legacy of Lynch Law in the U.S.: The struggle against a biased popular justice' (2009), Legal Narratives, pp.77-100
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Walters, M.A. , 'A general theories of hate crime? Strain, doing difference and self control' (2011), Critical Criminology, 19(4), pp.313-330
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Walters, M.A. & Brown, R. with Wiedlitzka, S., 'Causes and motivations of hate crime' (2016), Equality and Human Rights Commission, Research report 102
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Walters, M.A. & Hoyle, C., 'Exploring the everyday world of hate victimization through community mediation' (2012), International Review of Victimology, 18(1), pp.7-24
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Walters, M.A. & Hoyle, C., 'Healing harms and engendering tolerance: The promise of restorative justice for hate crime' (2010), in Chakraborti, N. (ed.) (2010) Hate Crime: Concepts, policy, future directions, Devon: Willan Publishing

Walther, J.B., 'Social media and online hate' (2022), Current Opinion in Psychology, 45, 101298
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Wang, S., 'Hate Crime Analysis based on Artificial Intelligence Methods' (2021), E3S Web of Conferences, 251, 01062
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Wang, L., 'The transforming power of “hate”: Social cognition theory and the harms of bias-related crime' (1997), Southern California Law Review, 71, pp.47-135
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Ward, K. , 'The role of the Anglican and Catholic churches in Uganda in public discourse on homosexuality and ethics' (2015), Journal of Eastern African Studies, 9(1), pp.127-144
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Warren-Gordon, K. & Rhineberger, G., 'The “Trump effect” on hate crime reporting: Media coverage before and after the 2016 presidential election' (2021), Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice [online]
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Williamson, H., De Buck, A. & Pauwels, L.J.R., 'Perceived injustice, perceived group threat and self-reported right-wing violence: An integrated approach' (2021), Monatsschrift fur Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform, 0129
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Wilson, V., Parrott, D. & Peterson, J., 'Combined effects of masculine gender-role stress and sexual prejudice on anger and aggression toward gay men' (2011), Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(5), pp.1237-1257
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Yahagi, K., 'The Effects of Hate Groups on Hate Crimes' (2019), Review of Law and Economics [online]
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Yoshida, Y., 'Not Leather Boots but Dress Shoes: White-Collar Masculinity and the Far-Right Movement' (2020), Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia, 19(2), pp. 104-124
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Zakrison, T.L., Milian Valdés, D. & Muntaner, C., 'Social Violence, Structural Violence, Hate, and the Trauma Surgeon' (2019), International Journal of Health Services [online]
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