Publications: Defining hate crime

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Flyvholm, A.-M., 'Integration, Enlightenment or Rights?: Three Perspectives on Hate Crimes Against Muslims in Denmark' (2020), Journal of Muslims in Europe, 9(3), pp. 304-330
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Formby, E., 'Limitations of focussing on homophobic, biphobic and transphobic ‘bullying’ to understand and address LGBT young people’s experiences within and beyond school' (2015), Sex Education, pp.1-15
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Gale, L.R., Carrington Heath, W. & Ressler, R.W., 'An economic analysis of hate crime' (2002), Eastern Economic Journal, 28(2), pp.203-216
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Galinari, M.M., 'Identifying “Hate Speech”: A Rhetorical Discourse Approach | [Identificando os “Discursos de Ódio”: Um Olhar Retórico-Discursivo]' (2020), Revista de Estudos da Linguagem, 28(4), pp. 1697-1746
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Gan, L., Williams, R.C. & Wiseman, T., 'A simple model of optimal hate crime legislation' (2011), Economic Inquiry, 49(3)
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Garland J., Spalek, B. & Chakraborti, N., 'Hearing lost voices: Issues in researching ‘’hidden’’ minority ethnic communities' (2006), British Journal of Criminology, 46(3), pp.423-437
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Garland, J. & Funnell, Corinne, 'Defining hate crime internationally: Issues and conundrums' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.15-30), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Giannasi, P., 'Hate crime in the United Kingdom' (2014), in Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P. & Grieve, J. (2014) The Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime. London: Routledge

Gladfelter, A.S., Lantz, B. & Ruback, R.B., 'The complexity of hate crime and bias activity: Variation across contexts and types of bias' (2015), Justice Quarterly
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Grattet, R. & Jenness, V., 'The birth and maturation of hate crime policy in the United States ' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.668-696
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Green, D.P., McFalls, L.H. & Smith, J.K., 'Hate crime: An emergent research agenda' (2001), Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 479-504
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Greenwald, A.G. & Pettigrew, T.F., 'With malice toward none and charity for some: Ingroup favouritism enables discrimination' (2014), American Psychologist, 69(7), pp.669-684
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Hall, N., 'Hate crime' (2013), New York: Routledge

Hall, N., 'Making sense of numbers: The social construction of hate crime in London and New York City' (2008), in Goodey, J. & Aromaa, K. (eds.) (2008) Hate Crime: papers from the 2006 and 2007 Stockholm Criminology Symposiums. Criminal Justice Press.

Hall, N., 'Hate crime (2nd Edition)' (2013), Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing

Hall, N. & Hayden, C., 'Is ‘hate crime’ a relevant and useful way of conceptualising some forms of school bullying?' (2007), International Journal on School Violence, 3, pp.3-24

Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P., & Grieve, J. (eds.), 'The international handbook of hate crime' (2014), London: Routledge.

Harel, A. & Parchomovsky, G., 'On hate and equality' (1999), The Yale Law Journal, 109(3), pp.507-539
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Harry, J., 'Conceptualizing antigay violence' (1992), Herek, G.M. & Berrill, K. (eds.), 'Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men' (1992), USA: Sage Publications

Heinze, E., 'Towards a legal concept of hatred: Democracy, ontology, and the limits of deconstruction' (2015), in T. Brudholm & B. Schepelern Johansen (Eds), Hate, politics, law: Critical perspectives on combating hate (Chapter 5). New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Herek, G.M., 'The social context of hate crimes: Notes on cultural heterosexism' (1992), Herek, G.M. & Berrill, K. (eds.), 'Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men' (1992), USA: Sage Publications

Hodge, J.P, 'Gendered hate: Exploring gender in hate crime law' (2011), Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press

Hoffarth, M.R. & Hodson, G., 'Is subjective ambivalence toward gays a modern form of bias?' (2014), Personality and Individual Differences, 69(Oct), pp.75-80
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Holland-Muter, S., 'Outside the safety zone: An agenda for research on gender-based violence targeting lesbian and bisexual women in South Africa' (2012), Braamfontein: MaThoko’s Books.
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Hollomotz, A., 'Disability, oppression and violence: Towards a sociological explanation' (2012), Sociology, 47(3), pp.477-493
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Iganski, P., 'How hate hurts' (2002), in Csepeli, G. & Orkeny, A. (2002) Hate and politics. Budapest: Minoritas Alapitvany Kisebbsegkutato, Intezet.

Iganski, P., '‘Hate crime’ and the city' (2008), University of Bristol: Policy Press

Iganski, P., 'Hate crime' (2010), in Brookman, F., Maguire, M., Pierpoint, H. & Bennett, T. (2010) Handbook on Crime. Cullompton: Willan.

Iganski, P., 'Hate crimes. The consequences of hate crimes.' (2009), Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Iganski, P., 'Criminal law and the routine activity of ‘hate crime’' (2008), Liverpool Law Review, 1(29), pp.1-17
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Iganski, P., Ainsworth, K., Geraghty, L., Lagou, S. & Patel, N., 'Understanding how ‘hate’ hurts: A case study of working with offenders and potential offenders' (2014), in Chakraborti, N. & Garland, J. (2014) Responding to hate crime: the case for connecting policy and research. Bristol: Policy Press.

Iudici, A. & Verdecchia, M., 'Homophobic labeling in the process of identity construction' (2015), Sexuality and Culture
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Jacobs, J.B. & Henry, J.S., 'The social construction of a hate crime epidemic' (1996), Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 86(2), pp.366-391
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Jacobs, J.B. & Potter, K., 'Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics' (2000), USA: Oxford University Press.

James, Z. & Simmonds, L., 'Exploring prejudice: Mapping hate crime in the South West' (2012), Criminology and Criminal Justice with Plymouth University.
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Javaid, A., 'The Haunting of Hate: Rape as a Form of Hate Crime' (2019), Sexuality and Culture [online]
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Jefferson, T., 'What is racism? Othering, prejudice and hate-motivated violence' (2015), International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 4(4), pp.120-135
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Jenness, V., 'The emergence, content, and institutionalization of hate crime law: How a diverse policy community produced a modern legal fact' (2007), Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 3, pp.141-160
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Jenness, V., 'Engendering hate crime law' (2013), Sex Roles, 68(5-6), pp.390-393
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Jenness, V. & Broad, K., 'Hate crimes: New social movements and the politics of violence' (1997), Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruter

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Kahan, D.M., 'Two liberal fallacies in the hate crimes debate' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.175-193
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Kane, K., 'Fostering a victim centred approach to hate crime in Scotland' (2017), Victim Support Scotland
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Kaufman, D.R., 'Renaming violence' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.654-667
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Key Sun, 'The legal definition of hate crime and the hate offender’s distorted cognitions' (2006), Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 27(6), pp.597-604
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Kielinger, V., & Paterson, S., 'Policing hate crime in London' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.196-204
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Levin, B., 'Hate crimes: Worse by definition' (1999), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(1), pp.6-21
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Levin, B., 'From slavery to hate crime laws: The emergence of race and status based protection in American criminal law' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.227-245
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Levin, B., Nolan, J.J. & Perry, B., 'Disrupting the mantra of multiculturalism: Hate crime in Canada' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1637-1654
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Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate crimes: The rising tide of bigotry and bloodshed' (2001), Westview Press Inc.

Lowe, D., 'Far-Right Extremism: Is it Legitimate Freedom of Expression, Hate Crime, or Terrorism?' (2020), Terrorism and Political Violence, pp. 1-21
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