Publications: Hate crime models

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Medoff, M.H., 'Allocation of time and hateful behavior: A theoretical and positive analysis of hate and hate crimes' (1999), The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 58(4), pp.959-973
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Meer, N., 'Racialization and religion: Race, culture and difference in the study of antisemitism and Islamophobia' (2013), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(3), pp.385-398
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Meyer, D., 'Resisting hate crime discourse: Queer and intersectional challenges to neoliberal hate crime laws' (2014), Critical Criminology, 22(1), pp.113-125
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Morewitz, S.J., 'Hate crimes' (2008), Death Threats and Violence, pp.102-118
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Morgan, J., 'US hate crime legislation: A legal model to avoid in Australia' (2002), Journal of Sociology, 38(1), pp.25-48
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Muholi, Z., 'Thinking through lesbian rape' (2004), Agenda, 18(61), pp.116-125
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Nadal, K.L., Whitman, C.N., Davis, L.S., Erazo, T. & Davidoff, K.C., 'Microaggressions toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and genderqueer people: A review of the literature' (2016), Journal of Sex Research, 53(4-5), pp.488-508
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Nolan III, James J., McDevitt, J., Cronin, S. & Farrell, A., 'Learning to see hate crimes: A framework for understanding and clarifying ambiguities in hate crime classification' (2004), Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society, 17(1), pp.91-105
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Opotow, S. & McClelland, S.I., 'The intensification of hating: A theory' (2007), Social Justice Research, 20(1), pp.68-97
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Pathak, M.K. & Rai, S., 'Mob Lynching: A New Form of Hate Crime' (2020), Medico-Legal Update, 20(3), pp. 135-141
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Pavetich, M. & Stathi, S., 'Meta-Humanization Reduces Prejudice, Even Under High Intergroup Threat' (2020), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology [online]
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Pendo, E.A., 'Recognising violence against women: Gender and the Hate Crimes Statistics Act' (1994), Harvard Women's Law Journal, 17, pp.157

Perry, B., '“Button-down terror”: The metamorphosis of the hate movement' (2000), Sociological Focus, 33(2), pp.113-131
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Petrosino, C. & Pace, J., 'Social cohesion, collective efficacy, and the response of a Cape Verdean community to hate crime: Learning a new reality' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1681-1697
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Piatkowska, S.J., Messner, S.F. & Yang, T.-C., 'Understanding the relationship between relative group size and hate crime rates: Linking methods with concepts' (2018), Justice Quarterly [online]
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Pieterse, T, Stratford, V. & Nel, J.A., 'Relationship Between Symbolic Violence and Overt Violence in Hate Incidents in South Africa' (2018), African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, 16(2), 31-43
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Plumm, K.M., Terrance, C.A. & Austin, A., 'Not all hate crimes are created equal: An examination of the roles of ambiguity and expectations in perceptions of hate crimes' (2014), Current Psychology, 33(3), pp.321-364
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Prahlow, J.A., 'Hate crimes and the forensic pathologist' (2007), American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 28(4), pp.284-287
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Recker Rayburn, N., Mendoza, M. & Davidson, G.C., 'Bystanders’ perceptions of perpetrators and victims of hate crime: An investigation using the person perception paradigm' (2003), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(9), pp.1055-1074
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Relia, K., Li, Z., Cook, S.H., Chunara, R., 'Race, Ethnicity and National Origin-Based Discrimination in Social Media and Hate Crimes Across 100 U.S. Cities' (2019), Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Web and Social Media, ICWSM 2019, pp. 417-427
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Roose, J.M. & Turner, B.S., 'Islamophobia, Science and the Advocacy Concept' (2019), Society [online]
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Schmid, P.C. & Amodio, D.M., 'Power effects on implicit prejudice and stereotyping: The role of intergroup face processing' (2016), Social Neuroscience, pp.1-14
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Sin, C.H., 'Using a ‘layers of influence’ model to understand the interaction of research, policy and practice in relation to disablist hate crime' (2014), in Chakraborti, N. & Garland, J. (2014) Responding to hate crime: the case for connecting policy and research. Bristol: Policy Press.

Strobl, R., Klemm, J. & Wurtz, S., 'Preventing hate crimes: Experiences from two East-German towns' (2005), British Journal of Criminology, 45(5), pp.634-646
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Syed, J. & Ali, F., 'A Pyramid of Hate Perspective on Religious Bias, Discrimination and Violence' (2020), Journal of Business Ethics [online]
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Tang, Y. & Dalzell, N., 'Classifying Hate Speech Using a Two-Layer Model' (2019), Statistics and Public Policy, 6(1), pp. 80-86
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Tiby, E., 'Victimization and fear among lesbians and gay men in Stockholm' (2001), International Review of Victimology, 8(2), pp.217-243
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Twomey, A., 'Laws against incitement to racial hatred in the United Kingdom' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.235-248
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Vogel, B.L., 'Perceptions of hate: The extent to which a motive of “hate” influences attitudes of violent crimes' (2000), Journal of Crime and Justice, 23(2), pp.1-25
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Wallengren, S., Wigerfelt, A., Wigerfelt, B. & Mellgren, C., 'Visibility and Vulnerability: A Mixed Methodology Approach to Studying Roma Individuals’ Victimization Experiences' (2019), International Review of Victimology [online]
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Walters, M.A. , 'A general theories of hate crime? Strain, doing difference and self control' (2011), Critical Criminology, 19(4), pp.313-330
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Waqas, A., Salminen, J., Jung, S.-G., Almerekhi, H. & Jansen, B.J., 'Mapping Online Hate: A Scientometric Analysis on Research Trends and Hotspots in Research on Online Hate' (2019), (2019), PLoS ONE, 14(9)
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Wigerfelt, A. & Wigerfelt, B., 'A challenge to multiculturalism: Everyday racism and hate crime in a small Swedish town' (2014), ONES: The Journal of Multicultural Society, 5(2), pp.48-75
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Williams, M.L. & Burnap, P., 'Cyberhate on social media in the aftermath of Woolwich: A case study in computational criminology and big data' (2016), British Journal of Criminology, 56(2), pp.211-238
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Williams, M.L. & Tregidga, J., 'Hate crime victimization in Wales: Psychological and physical impacts across seven hate crime victim types' (2014), British Journal of Criminology, 54(4), pp.946-967
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Worthen, M.G.F., 'Hetero-cis–normativity and the gendering of transphobia' (2016), International Journal of Transgenderism, 17(1), pp.31-57
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Zakrison, T.L., Milian Valdés, D. & Muntaner, C., 'Social Violence, Structural Violence, Hate, and the Trauma Surgeon' (2019), International Journal of Health Services [online]
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