Publications

C

Craig, K.M., 'Examining hate-motivated aggression: A review of the social psychological literature on hate crimes as a distinct form of aggression' (2002), Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(1), pp.85-101
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Craig, K.M., 'Retaliation, fear, or rage: An investigation of African American and white reactions to racist hate crimes' (1999), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(2), pp.138-151
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Craig, K.M. & Waldo, C.R., '“So, what’s a hate crime anyway?” Young adults’ perceptions of hate crimes, victims, and perpetrators' (1996), Law and Human Behaviour, 20(2), pp.113-129
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Craig‐Henderson, K. & Sloan, L.R., 'After the hate: Helping psychologists help victims of racist hate crime' (2003), Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(4), pp.481-490
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Cramer, J., Kehn, A., Pennington, R., Wechsler, J., Clark, W. & Nagle, J., 'An examination of sexual orientation- and transgender-based hate crimes in the post-Matthew Shepard era' (2013), Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19(3), pp.355-368
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Cramer, R.J., Burks, A.C., Plöderl, M. &Durgampudi, P., 'Minority stress model components and affective well-being in a sample of sexual orientation minority adults living with HIV/AIDS' (2017), AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
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Cramer, R.J., Chandler, J.F. & Wakeman, E.E., 'Blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of sexual orientation-based hate crimes' (2010), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(5), pp.848-862
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Cramer, R.J., Clark III, J.W., Kehn, A., Burks, A.C. & Wechsler, H.J., 'A mock juror investigation of blame attribution in the punishment of hate crime perpetrators' (2014), International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37(6), pp.551-557
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Cramer, R.J., Kehn, A., Sorby, M., Nobles M.R., Long M.M., Marsden J., Deitle C., Griffin S.M., King A., Smart, S. & Fording, R.C., 'Development and Psychometric Properties of the Hate-Motivated Behavior Checklist (HMBC)' (2021), Criminal Justice and Behavior [online]
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Cramer, R.J., Laxton, K.L., Chandler, J.F., Kehn, A., Bate, B.P. & Clark, J.W., 'Political identity, type of victim, and hate crime-related beliefs as predictors of views concerning hate crime penalty enhancement laws' (2017), Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy [online]
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Cramer, R.J., McNiel, D.E., Holley, S.R., Shumway, M. & Boccellari, A., 'Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?' (2011), Law and Human Behaviour, pp.1-11
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Cramer, R.J., Nobles, M.R., Amacker, A.M. & Dovoedo, L., 'Defining and evaluating perceptions of victim blame in antigay hate crimes' (2013), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(14), pp.2894-2914
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Cramer, R.J., Wakeman, E.E., Chandler, J.F., Mohr, J.J. & Griffin, M.P., 'Hate crimes on trial: Judgments about violent crime against gay men' (2013), Psychiatry Psychology and Law, 20(2), pp.202-215
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Cramer, R.J., Wright, S., Long, M.M., Kapusta, N.D, Nobles, M.R. Gemberling, T.M., & Wechsler, H.J., 'On hate crime victimization: Rates, types, and links with suicide risk among sexual orientation minority special interest group members' (2018), Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 19:4, pp.476-489
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Cramer, R.J., Wright, S., Long, M.M., Kapusta, N.D., Nobles, M.R., Gemberling, T.M., Wechsler, H.J., 'On hate crime victimization: Rates, types, and links with suicide risk among sexual orientation minority special interest group members' (2018), Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 19(4), pp.476-489
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Cramphorn, C., 'Faith and prejudice: Sectarianism as hate crime' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.12-13
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Crichlow, W. & Lauricella, S., 'An analysis of anti-Black crime reporting in Toronto: Evidence from news frames and critical race theory' (2018), in M. Bhatia, S. Poynting & W. Tufail (Eds), Media, Crime and Racism. Palgrave Studies in Crime, Media and Culture (pp.301-316). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
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Crichton, S. & Stevenson, A., 'Crime and prejudice' (2002), Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney)

Criminal Justice Degree Hub, 'The alarming patterns of hate crime in America (infographic)' (2015)
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Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 'Hate crime: An inspection of the criminal justice system’s response to hate crime in Northern Ireland' (2017)
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Criminal Justice Joint Inspection, 'Facing up to offending: Use of restorative justice in the criminal justice system' (2012), London: CJJI
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Criminal Justice Joint Inspection, 'Living in a different world: Joint review of disability hate crime' (2013), London: HMCPSI, HMIC, HMI Probation
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Cripps, J. & Stermac, L., 'Cyber-sexual violence and negative emotional states among women in a Canadian University' (2018), International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 12(1), pp.171-186
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Critchlow, G., 'Stopping Genocide Through International Agreement When the Security Council Fails to Act' (2007), Georgetown Journal of International Law, 40(2), pp. 311-344
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Croff, J. M., Hubach, R. D., Currin, J. M. & Frederick, A. F. , 'Hidden rainbows: Gay bars as safe havens in a socially conservative area since the Pulse Nightclub Massacre' (2017), Sexuality Research and Social Policy, pp.1-8.
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Cronin, A. & King, A., 'Power, inequality and identification: Exploring diversity and intersectionality amongst older LGB adults ' (2010), Sociology, 44(5), pp.876-892
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Cronin, S., McDevitt, J., Farrell, A., & Nolan, J.J., 'Bias-crime reporting: Organizational responses to ambiguity, uncertainty, and infrequency in eight police departments' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.213-225,227-231
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Crown Office & Procurator Fiscal Service, Police Scotland, Scottish Courts and Tribunals Service, Scottish Prison Service, Scottish Legal Aid Board, The Law Society of Scotland & The Scottish Government, 'Criminal justice disability project – Final report' (2018)
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Crown Prosecution Service, 'Hate crime annual report 2016 –17' (2017)
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Crown Prosecution Service, 'Hate Crime Annual Report 2017-18' (2018)
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Crown Prosecution Service, 'Hate crimes and crimes against older people report 2011-2012' (2013)
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Crown Prosecution Service, 'Hate crime report 2008-2009' (2009)
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Crown Prosecution Service, 'Hate crime report 2007-2008' (2008)
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Crown Prosecution Service, 'Hate crime and crimes against older people report 2012-2013' (2014)
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Crown Prosecution Service, 'Hate crime and crimes against older people report 2010-2011' (2012)
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Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), 'Hate crime report: 2014/2015 and 2015/16' (2016)
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Cruz, R.M.O., de Sousa, W.V. & Cavalcanti, G.D.C., 'Selecting and combining complementary feature representations and classifiers for hate speech detection' (2022), Online Social Networks and Media, 28, 100194
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CST & Tell MAMA, 'Hate crime: A guide for those affected' (2017), Community Security Trust, Tell MAMA, The Crown Prosecution Service and the Department for Communities and Local Government
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CST - Protecting Our Jewish Community, 'Antisemitic Incidents Report, January–June 2016' (2016)
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CST - Protecting our Jewish Community, 'Antisemitic incidents report: January – June 2017' (2017)
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Cuerden, G., 'Official crime statistics: The dark figure of hate crime in Wales' (2017), Australasian Policing, 9(1), pp.17-19
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Cuerden, G. & Rogers, C., 'Exploring race hate crime reporting in Wales following Brexit' (2017), Review of European Studies, 9(1), pp.158-164
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Cuevas, C.A., Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., Robles, J., Lockwood, S., Geisler, I., Westendorp, J.V., Temple, J. & Zhang, S., 'Hate Crime and Bias Victimization of Latinx Adults: Rates From a Multisite Community Sample' (2021), Psychology of Violence, 11(6), pp. 529-538
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Culotta, K. A., 'Why victims hate to report: Factors affecting victim reporting in hate crime cases in Chicago' (2005), Kriminologija & Socijalna Integracija, 13(2), pp.15-27
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Culpeper, J., Iganski, P. & Sweiry, A., 'Linguistic impoliteness and religiously aggravated hate crime in England and Wales' (2017), Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 5(1), pp. 1-29
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Culpepper, J., 'Impoliteness and hate speech: Compare and contrast' (2021), Journal of Pragmatics [online]
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Cunneen, C., 'A study of Aboriginal juveniles and police violence: Report commissioned by the National Inquiry into Racist Violence' (1990)

Cunneen, C., 'Hysteria and hate: The vilification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people' (1997), in Cunneen, C., Fraser, D. & Tomsen, S. (eds.) Faces of Hate: Hate Crime in Australia. Sydney: Hawkins Press.

Cunneen, C. & de Rome, L., 'Monitoring hate crime: Report on a pilot project in New South Wales' (1993), Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 5, pp.160-172
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Cunneen, C. & de Rome, L., 'The monitoring by police of racist violence in the community' (1995), in Egger, S.J. & Chappell, D. (eds.) Australian Violence: Contemporary Perspectives 2

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