Publications

L

Legg, S. & Citizens, N., '‘No Place for Hate’: Community-Led Research and the Geographies of Nottingham Citizens’ Hate Crime Commission' (2019), Social and Cultural Geography [online]
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Lehman, B., '‘Stopping the Hate: Applying Insights on Bullying Victimization to Understand and Reduce the Emergence of Hate in Schools’' (2019), Sociological Inquiry [online]
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Lengel, L. & Smidi, A., 'How affect overrides fact: Anti-Muslim politicized rhetoric in the post-truth era' (2018), in L. Zhang & C. Clark (Eds.). Affect, emotion, and rhetorical persuasion in mass communication (Chapter 8). New York, NY: Routledge
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Lentin, R., 'Ireland: Racial state and crisis racism' (2007), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), pp.610-627
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Lentin, A., '(Not) doing race : ‘Casual racism’, ‘bystander antiracism’ and ‘ordinariness’ in Australian racism studies' (2017), in M. Boese & V. Marotta (Eds.), Critical reflections on migration, ‘race’ and multiculturalism: Australia in a global context (pp. 125-142)
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Leonard, W., Mitchell, A., Pitts, M. & Patel, S., 'Coming forward – The underreporting of heterosexist violence and same sex partner abuse in Victoria' (2009), Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society (ARCSHS).
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Leonardelli, E., Menini, S. & Tonelli, S., 'DH-FBK @ HaSpeeDe2: Italian hate speech detection via self-training and oversampling' (2020), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2765
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Leonenko, T.Y., Leonenko, M.I., Shyian, O.Y., Yurchyshyn, V.M. & Shkuta, O.O., '‘Pathological’ Religiosity Phenomenon as Manifestation of Individual’s Deviant Behavior: Religious Hatred or Discord Motive in Commission of Crimes in the Religious Denomination Sphere' (2019), Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, 10(1), pp. 295-306
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Lepoutre, M., 'Democratic Speech in Divided Times' (2021), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Lepoutre, M., 'Hate Speech Laws: Expressive Power Is Not the Answer' (2020), Legal Theory [online]
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Leung, M., 'Points of departure: Re-examining the discursive formation of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990' (2018), Patterns of Prejudice, 52(1), pp.39-57
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Levi, E., Mariani, R.D. & Patriarca, F., 'Hate at First Sight? Dynamic Aspects of the Electoral Impact of Migration: The Case of Ukip' (2019), Journal of Population Economics [online]
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Levin, B., 'The original web of hate: Revolution Muslim and American homegrown extremists' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1609-1630
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Levin, B., 'The vindication of hate violence victims via criminal and civil adjudications' (2002), Journal of Hate Studies, 1(1), pp. 133-165
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Levin, B., 'Hate crimes: Worse by definition' (1999), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(1), pp.6-21
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Levin, B., 'Reassessing laws on hate violence against the homeless' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1715-1728
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Levin, J., 'From thrill to defensive hate crimes: The impact of September 11, 2001' (2014), Journal of Hate Studies, 12(1), pp. 65-72
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Levin, B., 'Extremism and the constitution: How America’s legal evolution affects the response to extremism' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.714-754
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Levin, B., 'From slavery to hate crime laws: The emergence of race and status based protection in American criminal law' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.227-245
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Levin, B. & Reitzel, J.D., 'Report to the nation: Hate crimes rise in U.S. cities and counties in time of division and foreign interference' (2018), Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism; California State University, San Bernardino
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Levin, B., & Amster, S., 'Making hate history: Hate crime and policing in America’s most diverse city' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.329-348
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Levin, B., Nolan, J.J. & Perry, B., 'Disrupting the mantra of multiculturalism: Hate crime in Canada' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1637-1654
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Levin, J. & Idler, E.L., 'Islamophobia and the public health implications of religious hatred' (2018), AJPH, 108(6), pp.718–719
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Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate crimes: The rising tide of bigotry and bloodshed' (2001), Westview Press Inc.

Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Police response' (1993), Hate Crimes, pp.159-178
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Levin, J. & Rabrenovic, G., 'Hate crimes and ethnic conflict: An introduction' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.575-587
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Levin, J. & Reichelmann, A., 'From thrill to defensive motivation: The role of group threat in the changing nature of hate-motivated assaults' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1546-1561
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Levin, J., & McDevitt, J. , 'Hate crimes revisited: America’s war on those who are different' (2002), Boulder; Oxford: Westview Press

Levin, J., Rabrenovic, G., Ferraro, V., Doran, T., & Methe, D., 'When a crime committed by a teenager becomes a hate crime: Results from two studies' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.246-257
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Levy, B.L. & Levy, D.L., 'When love meets hate: The relationship between state policies on gay and lesbian rights and hate crime incidence' (2016), Social Science Research [online]
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Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B., 'Culture-Driven Emotional Profiles and Online Discourse Extremism' (2020), Pragmatics and Society, 11(2), pp. 262-291
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Lewis, C. S., 'Tough on hate?: The cultural politics of hate crimes' (2013), New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press
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Lewis, C.S., 'Tough-on-crime tolerance: The cultural criminalization of bigotry in the Post-Civil Rights Era' (2012), Critical Criminology, 20(3), pp.275-292
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Lewis, T.T., Kravitz, H.M., Janssen, I. & Powell, L.H., 'Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and caucasian women' (2011), American Journal of Epidemiology, 173(11), pp.1223-1231
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Li, M., 'Exemplifying Power Matters: The Impact of Power Exemplification of Transgender People in the News on Issue Attribution, Dehumanization, and Aggression Tendencies' (2021), Journalism Practice [online]
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Li, M., Liao, S., Okpala, E., Tong, M., Costello, M., Cheng, L., Hu, H. & Luo, F., 'COVID-HateBERT: A Pre-trained Language Model for COVID-19 related Hate Speech Detection' (2021), Proceedings - 20th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, ICMLA 2021, pp. 233-238
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Li, S., Zaidi, N.A., Liu, Q. & Li, G., 'Neighbours and Kinsmen: Hateful Users Detection with Graph Neural Network' (2021), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 12712 LNAI, pp. 434-446
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Li, Y., Jiang, B., Shu, K. & Liu, H., 'Toward A Multilingual and Multimodal Data Repository for COVID-19 Disinformation' (2020), Proceedings - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2020, 9378472, pp. 4325-4330
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Liebe, U., Hundeshagen, C., Beyer, H. & Cramon-Taubadel, S.V., 'Context effects and the temporal stability of stated preferences' (2016), Social Science Research, 60, pp.135-147
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Lieberman, M., 'Hate crime laws: Punishment to fit the crime: A response to Jesse Larner' (2010), Dissent, 57(3), pp.81-84
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Lieberman, J.D., Arndt, J., Personius, J. & Cook, A., 'Vicarious annihilation: The effect of mortality salience on perceptions of hate crimes' (2001), Law and Human Behaviour, 25(6), pp.547-566
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Liern, G.R., 'Glorification of terrorism: From the De Juana Chaos case to César Strawberry: From reception of the constitutional doctrine in the Supreme Court’s case law | [El enaltecimiento del terrorismo: Desde el caso de Juana Chaos a CÉsar Strawberry. La recepción de la doctrina constitucional en la jurisprudencia del tribunal supremo]' (2020), Revista de Derecho Politico, (109), pp. 191-227
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Liern, G.R., 'Social Networks and Hate Speech: An International Perspective | [Redes Sociales y Discurso del Odio: Perspectiva Internacional]' (2020), Revista de Internet, Derecho y Politica, (31)
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Light, M. & Iceland, J., 'The social context of racial boundary negotiations: Segregation, hate crime, and Hispanic racial identification in Metropolitan America' (2016), Sociological Science, 3, pp.61-84
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Liguori, J.B. & Spanierman, L.B., 'Walking out on hate: A qualitative investigation of how and why White supremacists quit hate groups' (2022), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 69(4), pp. 389-402
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Likupe, G., 'Experiences of African nurses and the perception of their managers in the NHS' (2015), Journal of Nursing Management, 23(2), pp.231-241
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Lilienthal, G. & Ahmad, N., 'Hate crime and social media in the UK' (2016), Computer and Telecommunications Law Review, 22(7), pp.188-193

Lim, S.S., 'Manufacturing Hate 4.0: Can Media Studies Rise to the Challenge?' (2020), Television and New Media, 21(6), pp. 602-607
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Lin, K.-Y., Lee, R.K.-W., Gao, W. & Peng, W.-C., 'Early Prediction of Hate Speech Propagation' (2021), IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDMW, 2021-December, pp. 967-974
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Lincoln, R., 'Book reviews (Faces of hate: Hate crime in Australia by Cunneen, C. et al.)' (1999), Journal of Sociology, 35(1), pp.100-102
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