Publications

A

Al Serhan, F. & Elareshi, M., 'University Students’ Awareness of Social Media Use and Hate Speech in Jordan' (2019), International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 13(2), pp. 548-563
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1755-1781
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making room for hate crime legislation in liberal societies' (2010), Criminal Law and Philosophy, 4(3), pp.341-358
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Al-Hakim, M. & Dimock, S., 'Hate as an aggravating factor in sentencing' (2012), New Criminal Law Review, 15(4), pp.572-611
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Al-Hassan, A. & Al-Dossari, H., 'Detection of hate speech in Arabic Tweets using deep learning' (2021), Multimedia Systems [online]
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Al-Khalifa, S., Aljarah, I. & Abushariah, M.A.M., 'Hate Speech Classification in Arabic Tweets' (2020), Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 98(11), pp. 1816-1831
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Al-Makhadmeh, Z., Tolba, A., 'Automatic Hate Speech Detection Using Killer Natural Language Processing Optimizing Ensemble Deep Learning Approach' (2019), Computing [online]
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Al-Rawi, A., 'Telegramming Hate: Far-Right Themes on Dark Social Media' (2021), Canadian Journal of Communication, 46(4), pp. 821-851
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Alaburić, V., 'Legal concept of hate speech and jurisprudence of the European court of human rights' (2018), Politicka Misao, 55(4), pp. 230-252
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Alatawi, H.S., Alhothali, A.M. & Moria, K.M., 'Detecting White Supremacist Hate Speech Using Domain Specific Word Embedding with Deep Learning and BERT' (2021), IEEE Access, 9, 9497095, pp. 106363-106374
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Albadi, N., Kurdi, M. & Mishra, S., 'Hateful People or Hateful Bots? Detection and Characterization of Bots Spreading Religious Hatred in Arabic Social Media' (2019), Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 3(CSCW)
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Albadi, N., Kurdi, M., Mishra, S., 'Investigating the Effect of Combining GRU Neural Networks With Handcrafted Features for Religious Hatred Detection on Arabic Twitter Space' (2019), Social Network Analysis and Mining, 9(1),41
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Albrecht, B., 'Multicultural challenges for restorative justice: Mediators’ experiences from Norway and Finland' (2010), Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime, 11, pp.3-24
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Albrecht, H.-J., 'Germany' (2008), in J. Winterdyk & G. Antonopoulos (Eds.), Racist victimization: International reflections and perspectives (pp.113-138). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Alcacer-Guirao, R. & Fouce, H., 'Toxic emotions in the new public sphere: Media controversies and hate discourse | [Emociones tóxicas en la nueva esfera pública: Controversias mediáticas y discurso del odio]' (2021), Revista Mediterranea de Comunicacion, 11(2), pp. 123-135
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Aldana-Bobadilla, E., Molina-Villegas, A., Montelongo-Padilla, Y., Lopez-Arevalo, I. & Sordia, O.S., 'A language model for misogyny detection in Latin American Spanish driven by multisource feature extraction and transformers' (2021), Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(21), 10467
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Alden, H.L. & Parker, K.F., 'Gender role ideology, Homophobia and hate crime: Linking attitudes to macro-level anti-gay and Lesbian hate crimes' (2005), Deviant Behavior, 26(4), pp.321-343
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Aldjanabi, W., Dahou, A., Al-Qaness, M.A.A., Elaziz M.A., Helmi, A.M. & Damaševičius, R., 'Arabic offensive and hate speech detection using a cross-corpora multi-task learning model' (2021), Informatics, 8(4), 69
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Aldridge, D., 'Online Harassment and Hate' (2019), ITNOW, 61(3), pp. 34
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Alexander, L., 'Is there a right to freedom of expression?' (2005), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alexander, L., 'The ADL hate crime statute and the first amendment' (1992), Criminal Justice Ethics, 11(2), pp.49-51
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Alhaboby, Z. A., al-Khateeb, H. M., Barnes, J. & Short, E., 'The language is disgusting and they refer to my disability’: The cyberharassment of disabled people' (2016), Disability & Society, 31(8), pp.1138-1143
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Alhaboby, Z., Barnes, J., Evans, H. & Short, E. , 'Challenges facing online research: Experiences from research concerning cyber-victimisation of people with disabilities' (2017), Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(1), pp.1-16
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Alhaboby, Z.A., Al-Khateeb, H.M., Barnes, J., Jahankhani H., Pitchford M., Conradie, L. & Short, E., 'Cyber-Disability Hate Cases in the UK: The Documentation by the Police and Potential Barriers to Reporting' (2021), Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications, pp. 123-133
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Alharthi, R., 'Recognizing Hate-prone Characteristics of Online Hate Speech Targets' (2021), ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 153-155
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Ali, S., 'The specter of hate and intolerance: sectarian-jihadi nexus and the persecution of Hazara Shia community in Pakistan' (2020), Contemporary South Asia [online]
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Ali, I., Asif, M., Hamid, I., Sawar, M.U., Khan, F.A. & Ghadi, Y., 'A word embedding technique for sentiment analysis of social media to understand the relationship between Islamophobic incidents and media portrayal of Muslim communities' (2022), PeerJ Computer Science, 8, e838
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Ali, N., Fleisher, W. & Erickson, J., 'Psychiatrists’ and psychiatry residents’ attitudes toward transgender people' (2016), Academic Psychiatry, 40(2), pp.268-273
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Ali, O., Scheidt, N., Gegov, A., Haig, E., Adda, M. & Aziz, B., 'Automated Detection of Racial Microaggressions using Machine Learning' (2020), 2020 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2020, 9308569, pp. 2477-2484
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Ali, R., Farooq, U., Arshad, U., Shahzad, W. & Beg, M.O., 'Hate speech detection on Twitter using transfer learning' (2022), Computer Speech and Language, 74, 101365
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Aljarah, I., Habib, M., Hijazi, N., Faris, H., Qaddoura, R., Hammo, B., Abushariah, M. & Alfawareh, M., 'Intelligent Detection of Hate Speech in Arabic Social Network: A Machine Learning Approach' (2020), Journal of Information Science [online]
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Aljero, M.K.A. & Dimililer, N., 'A novel stacked ensemble for hate speech recognition' (2021), Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(24), 11684
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Aljero, M.K.A. & Dimililer, N., 'Genetic Programming Approach to Detect Hate Speech in Social Media' (2021), IEEE Access, 9, 9513275, pp. 115115-115125
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Aljero, M.K.A. & Dimililer, N., 'Hate Speech Detection Using Genetic Programming' (2020), 3rd International Conference on Advanced Science and Engineering, ICOASE 2020, 9436621, pp. 92-96
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Alkiviadou, N., 'Liberating Expression: Contemporary European Challenges' (2022), International Journal for the Semiotics of Law [online]
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Alkiviadou, N., 'The Far-Right in International and European Law (2019), Abingdon: Routledge' (2019)
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Alkiviadou, N., 'The legal regulation of hate speech: The international and European frameworks' (2018), Politicka Misao, 55(4), pp. 203-229
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Alkiviadou, N., 'Regulating hatred: Of devils and demons?' (2018), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 18(4), pp.218–236
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Alkiviadou, N. & Belavusau, U., 'Rien que des mots: Counteracting homophobic speech in European and U.S. law' (2021), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law [online]
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All Party Parliamentary Group on British Muslims (appg), 'Islamophobia defined: The inquiry into a working definition of Islamophobia' (2018)
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Allen, C., 'Islamophobia and the problematization of Mosques: A critical exploration of hate crimes and the symbolic function of “old” and “new” Mosques in the United Kingdom' (2017), Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 37(3), pp.294-308
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Allen, M., 'Police reported hate crime in Canada, 2012' (2014), Statistics Canada
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Allen, Chris, 'Human Rights Advocates or Opportunists_ Defence Discourses Among Britain’s Far-Right.' (2020)
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Allen, C., 'Ideological Islamophobia: Conception and function, ‘normative truths’ and ‘new reality’' (2017), Muslim Perspectives, 2(2), pp.2-19
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Allen, C., 'Political approaches to tackling Islamophobia: An ‘insider/outsider’ analysis of the British Coalition Government’s approach between 2010–15' (2017), Social Sciences, 6(3), p.77
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Allen, C. H, 'Hate crime in the UK' (2018), Knowledge Creates Democracy - Open Access Series of the IDZ
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Allen, C., Isakjee, A. & Young, Ö.Ö., '‘Maybe we are hated’: The experience and impact of anti-Muslim hate on British Muslim women, November 2013' (2013), University of Birmingham, Institute of Applied Social Studies
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Allen, D. & Gibson, J., 'The issue of racial vilification' (1990), Law Institute Journal, 64(8), 709

Allinson, R.E., 'Unmasking color racism' (2021), Dialogue and Universalism, 31(1), pp. 41-68
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Allison, K. & Harris, C.T., 'Predicting bias homicide across victim groups: A county-level analysis' (2018), Social Science Research [online]
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