Publications

A

Albrecht, H.-J., 'Germany' (2008), in J. Winterdyk & G. Antonopoulos (Eds.), Racist victimization: International reflections and perspectives (pp.113-138). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Alcacer-Guirao, R. & Fouce, H., 'Toxic emotions in the new public sphere: Media controversies and hate discourse | [Emociones tóxicas en la nueva esfera pública: Controversias mediáticas y discurso del odio]' (2021), Revista Mediterranea de Comunicacion, 11(2), pp. 123-135
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Alden, H.L. & Parker, K.F., 'Gender role ideology, Homophobia and hate crime: Linking attitudes to macro-level anti-gay and Lesbian hate crimes' (2005), Deviant Behavior, 26(4), pp.321-343
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Aldridge, D., 'Online Harassment and Hate' (2019), ITNOW, 61(3), pp. 34
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Alexander, L., 'Is there a right to freedom of expression?' (2005), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alexander, L., 'The ADL hate crime statute and the first amendment' (1992), Criminal Justice Ethics, 11(2), pp.49-51
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Alhaboby, Z. A., al-Khateeb, H. M., Barnes, J. & Short, E., 'The language is disgusting and they refer to my disability’: The cyberharassment of disabled people' (2016), Disability & Society, 31(8), pp.1138-1143
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Alhaboby, Z., Barnes, J., Evans, H. & Short, E. , 'Challenges facing online research: Experiences from research concerning cyber-victimisation of people with disabilities' (2017), Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(1), pp.1-16
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Alhaboby, Z.A., Al-Khateeb, H.M., Barnes, J., Jahankhani H., Pitchford M., Conradie, L. & Short, E., 'Cyber-Disability Hate Cases in the UK: The Documentation by the Police and Potential Barriers to Reporting' (2021), Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications, pp. 123-133
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Alharthi, R., 'Recognizing Hate-prone Characteristics of Online Hate Speech Targets' (2021), ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 153-155
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Ali, S., 'The specter of hate and intolerance: sectarian-jihadi nexus and the persecution of Hazara Shia community in Pakistan' (2020), Contemporary South Asia [online]
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Ali, N., Fleisher, W. & Erickson, J., 'Psychiatrists’ and psychiatry residents’ attitudes toward transgender people' (2016), Academic Psychiatry, 40(2), pp.268-273
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Ali, O., Scheidt, N., Gegov, A., Haig, E., Adda, M. & Aziz, B., 'Automated Detection of Racial Microaggressions using Machine Learning' (2020), 2020 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2020, 9308569, pp. 2477-2484
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Aljarah, I., Habib, M., Hijazi, N., Faris, H., Qaddoura, R., Hammo, B., Abushariah, M. & Alfawareh, M., 'Intelligent Detection of Hate Speech in Arabic Social Network: A Machine Learning Approach' (2020), Journal of Information Science [online]
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Aljero, M.K.A. & Dimililer, N., 'Hate Speech Detection Using Genetic Programming' (2020), 3rd International Conference on Advanced Science and Engineering, ICOASE 2020, 9436621, pp. 92-96
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Alkiviadou, N., 'The Far-Right in International and European Law (2019), Abingdon: Routledge' (2019)
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Alkiviadou, N., 'The legal regulation of hate speech: The international and European frameworks' (2018), Politicka Misao, 55(4), pp. 203-229
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Alkiviadou, N., 'Regulating hatred: Of devils and demons?' (2018), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 18(4), pp.218–236
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All Party Parliamentary Group on British Muslims (appg), 'Islamophobia defined: The inquiry into a working definition of Islamophobia' (2018)
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Allen, C., 'Islamophobia and the problematization of Mosques: A critical exploration of hate crimes and the symbolic function of “old” and “new” Mosques in the United Kingdom' (2017), Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 37(3), pp.294-308
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Allen, M., 'Police reported hate crime in Canada, 2012' (2014), Statistics Canada
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Allen, Chris, 'Human Rights Advocates or Opportunists_ Defence Discourses Among Britain’s Far-Right.' (2020)
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Allen, C., 'Ideological Islamophobia: Conception and function, ‘normative truths’ and ‘new reality’' (2017), Muslim Perspectives, 2(2), pp.2-19
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Allen, C., 'Political approaches to tackling Islamophobia: An ‘insider/outsider’ analysis of the British Coalition Government’s approach between 2010–15' (2017), Social Sciences, 6(3), p.77
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Allen, C. H, 'Hate crime in the UK' (2018), Knowledge Creates Democracy - Open Access Series of the IDZ
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Allen, C., Isakjee, A. & Young, Ö.Ö., '‘Maybe we are hated’: The experience and impact of anti-Muslim hate on British Muslim women, November 2013' (2013), University of Birmingham, Institute of Applied Social Studies
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Allen, D. & Gibson, J., 'The issue of racial vilification' (1990), Law Institute Journal, 64(8), 709

Allison, K. & Harris, C.T., 'Predicting bias homicide across victim groups: A county-level analysis' (2018), Social Science Research [online]
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Allison, K., & Klein, B.R, 'Pursuing Hegemonic Masculinity Through Violence: An Examination of Anti-Homeless Bias Homicides’ (2019),' (2019), Journal of Interpersonal Violence [online]
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Allport, G. W., 'The nature of prejudice' (1954), Reading, MA: Addison - Wesley

Almack, K., Seymour, J. & Bellamy, G., 'Exploring the impact of sexual orientation on experiences and concerns about end of life care and on bereavement for lesbian, gay and bisexual older people' (2010), Sociology, 44(5), pp.908-924
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Almatarneh, S., Gamallo, P., Pena, F.J.R. & Alexeev, A., 'Supervised Classifiers to Identify Hate Speech on English and Spanish Tweets' (2019), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 11853 LNCS, pp. 23-30
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Almuger, T., 'Racial fault lines: The historical origin of white supremacy in California' (1994), Berkley: University of California Press

Alonso, P., Saini, R. & Kovács, G., 'Hate Speech Detection Using Transformer Ensembles on the HASOC Dataset' (2020), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 12335 LNAI, pp. 13-21
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Alotaibi, A. & Abul Hasanat, M.H., 'Racism Detection in Twitter Using Deep Learning and Text Mining Techniques for the Arabic Language' (2020), Proceedings - 2020 1st International Conference of Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies, SMART-TECH 2020, 9283815, pp. 161-164
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Alrababa'H, A., Marble, W., Mousa, S.A.L.M.A. & Siegel, A.A., 'Can Exposure to Celebrities Reduce Prejudice? The Effect of Mohamed Salah on Islamophobic Behaviors and Attitudes' (2021), American Political Science Review [online]
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Alrehili, A., 'Automatic Hate Speech Detection on Social Media: A Brief Survey' (2019), Proceedings of IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, AICCSA, 2019-November, 9035228
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Alsaad, A., Taamneh, A. & Al-Jedaiah, M.N., 'Does social media increase racist behavior? An examination of confirmation bias theory' (2018), Technology in Society [online]
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Alsafari, S., Sadaoui, S. & Mouhoub, M., 'Deep Learning Ensembles for Hate Speech Detection' (2020), Proceedings - International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, ICTAI, 2020-November, 9288318, pp. 526-531
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Alsafari, S., Sadaoui, S. & Mouhoub, M., 'Hate and Offensive Speech Detection on Arabic Social Media' (2020), Online Social Networks and Media, 19, 100096
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Alshalan, R. & Al-Khalifa, H., 'A deep learning approach for automatic hate speech detection in the Saudi Twittersphere' (2020), Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10(23), 8614, pp. 1-16
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Alshalan, R., Al-Khalifa, H., Alsaeed, D., Al-Baity, H. & Alshalan, S., 'Detection of hate speech in COVID-19-related tweets in the Arab Region: Deep learning and topic modeling approach' (2020), Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(12), e22609
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Alshamrani, S., Abusnaina, A., Abuhamad, M., Nyang, D. & Mohaisen, D., 'Hate, Obscenity, and Insults: Measuring the Exposure of Children to Inappropriate Comments in YouTube' (2021), The Web Conference 2021 - Companion of the World Wide Web Conference, WWW 2021, pp. 508-515
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Altaa, M. & Al-Rawashdeh, A.L., 'The social responsibility of television in the dissemination of a culture of tolerance and rejection of hatred (Applied Study on a Sample of the UAE Society 2019-2020)' (2021), Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences, 48(2), pp. 85-102
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Altman, A., 'The democratic legitimacy of bias crime laws: Public reason and the political process' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.141-173
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Aluru, S.S., Mathew, B., Saha, P. & Mukherjee, A., 'A Deep Dive into Multilingual Hate Speech Classification' (2021), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 12461 LNAI, pp. 423-439
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Alvarez-Benjumea & A., Winter, F., 'The Breakdown of Antiracist Norms: A Natural Experiment on Hate Speech After Terrorist Attacks' (2020), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(37), pp. 22800-22804
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Ambikaipaker, M., 'Liberal exceptions: Violent racism and routine anti-racist failure in Britain' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, pp.1-16
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Amer, M.M. & Bagasra, A., 'Psychological research with Muslim Americans in the age of Islamophobia: Trends, challenges and recommendations' (2013), American Psychologist, 68(3), pp.134-144
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American Bar Association, Long J.T. & Kelly, C.L., 'Justice Works: Framework for Enhanced Responses to Bias-Motivated Violence Based on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, or Gender Expression' (2019), ABA
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