Publications

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Smith, A., 'Unmasking the state: Racial/gender terror and hate crimes' (2007), Australian Feminist Law Journal, 26(1), pp.47-57
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Smith, K. (ed.), Lader, D., Hoare, J. & Lau, I., 'Hate crime, cyber security and the experience of crime among children: Findings from the 2010/11 British Crime Survey: Supplementary volume 3 to crime in England and Wales 2010/11' (2012), Home Office Statistical Bulletin.
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Smith, S.J., Zanotti, D.C., Axelton, A.M., Saucier, D.A., 'Individuals’ beliefs about the etiology of same-sex sexual orientation' (2011), Journal of Homosexuality, 58(8), pp.1110-1131
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Snell, J., 'Nurses wage war on hate crime' (2013), Nursing Standard, 27(19), pp.16-18
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Snowball, L. & Weatherburn, D., 'Does racial bias in sentencing contribute to Indigenous overrepresentation in prison? ' (2007), Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 40(3), pp.272-290
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Socialist Equality Party, 'The class issues behind Australia’s race riots' (2005)
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Sohn, H. & Lee, H., 'MCERT4HATE: Hate Speech Detection Using Multi-Channel Bert for Different Languages and Translations' (2019), IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDMW, 2019-November, 8955559, pp. 551-559
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Solomon, T., 'Problems in drafting legislation against racist activities' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.265-298
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Song Richardson, L. & Goff, P.A., 'Implicit racial bias in public defender triage' (2013), Yale Law Journal, 122(8), pp.2626-2649
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Sorato, D., Goularte, F.B. & Fileto, R., 'Short Semantic Patterns: A Linguistic Pattern Mining Approach for Content Analysis Applied to Hate Speech' (2020), International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 29(2), 2040002
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Soto, C.A.A., 'Discourse by readers of digital media about police violence against women: Another form of virtual violence?' (2018), Estudios Sobre el Mensaje Periodistico 24(2), pp. 1023-1041
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Soto, C.A.A. & Sánchez, K.D.V., 'Internet Violence Against Chilean Feminists and Other Activists | [Violencia En Internet Contra Feministas Y Otras Activistas Chilenas]' (2019), Revista Estudos Feministas, 27(3), e58797
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Soule, S.A. & Earl, J., 'The enactment of state-level hate crime law in the United States: Intrastate and interstate factors' (2001), Sociological Perspectives, 44(3), pp.281-305
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Soule, S.A. & Van Dyke, N., 'Black Church Arson in the United States, 1989-1996' (1999), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(4), pp.724-742
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Southern Poverty Law Center [SPLC], 'Ten ways to fight hate: A community resource guide' (2017)
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Soyer, F., 'Faith, culture and fear: Comparing Islamophobia in early modern Spain and twenty-first-century Europe' (2014), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(3), pp.399-416
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Spalek, B., 'Communities, identities and crime' (2008), Bristol: The Policy Press.

Spalek, B., 'Hate crimes against British Muslims in the aftermath of September 11th' (2002), Criminal Justice Matters, 48(1), pp.20-21
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Spencer, K.B., Charbonneau, A.K. & Glaser, J., 'Implicit bias and policing' (2015), Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(1), pp.50-63
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Spieldenner, A.R. & Glenn, C.L., 'Scripting hate crimes: Victim, space and perpetrator defining hate' (2014), Continuum, 28(1), pp.123-135
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Spohn, C., 'Race, crime, and punishment in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries' (2015), Crime and Justice, 44(1), pp.49-97
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Sponholz, L., 'Hate Speech in den Massenmedien: Theoretische Grundlagen und empirische Umsetzung' (2018), Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften
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Sponholz, L., 'Hate Speech in Sozialen Medien: Motor der Eskalation?' (2019), in H. Friese, M. Nolden & M. Schreiter (Eds.), Rassismus im Alltag (pp. 157-178). Bielefeld: transcript Verlag (in German only)
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Sponholz, L., 'Der Begriff „Hate Speech“ in der Deutschsprachigen Forschung. Eine Empirische Begriffsanalyse [The Concept “Hate Speech” in German-speaking Research. An Empirical Conceptual Analysis]' (2020), SWS-Rundschau 1, pp. 45-63 [in German only]
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Sponholz, L., & Christofoletti, R., 'From preachers to comedians: Ideal types of hate speakers in Brazil' (2019), Global Media and Communication, 15(1), pp. 67–84
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Sreelakshmi, K., Premjith, B. & Soman, K.P., 'Detection of Hate Speech Text in Hindi-English Code-mixed Data' (2020), Procedia Computer Science, 171, pp. 737-744
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Stacey, M., 'The effect of law on hate crime reporting: The case of racial and ethnic violence' (2015), American Journal of Criminal Justice
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Stacey, M., 'Adapting minority group threat to examine the social control of sexual orientation bias' (2018), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(20), pp.3079-3101
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Stacey, M., 'Distinctive characteristics of sexual orientation bias crimes' (2011), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(15), pp.3013-3032
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Stacey, M., Averett, P., & Knox, B,, 'An Exploration of Victimization in the Older Lesbian Population' (2018), Victims and Offenders 13(5), pp. 693-710
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Stacey, M., Carbone-Lopez, K. & Rosenfeld, R., 'Demographic change and ethnically motivated crime: The impact of immigration on anti-Hispanic hate crime in the United States' (2011), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 27(3), pp.278-298
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Stachowski, C. & Stephenson, R., 'Homophobia and communal coping for HIV risk management among gay men in relationships' (2015), Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 44(2), pp.467-474
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Staetsky, L.D., 'Antisemitism in contemporary Great Britain: A study of attitudes towards Jews and Israel' (2017), Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR)
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Staetsky, L.D. & Boyd, J., 'The exceptional case? Perceptions and experiences of Antisemitism among Jews in the United Kingdom' (2014), Institute for Jewish Policy Research.
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Standing Committee on Employment, Education and Training, Parliament of Australia – House of Representatives, 'Sticks and stones: Report on violence in Australian schools' (1994)

Standing Committee on Social Issues, Parliament of New South Wales – Legislative Council, 'The nature and extent of school violence' (1995), A Report into Youth Violence in New South Wales (1995), 65

Stanislas, P., 'Policing violent homophobia in the Caribbean and the British Caribbean diaspora: Postcolonial discourses and the limits of postmodernity' (2014), Interventions, 16(1), pp.135-156
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Stanko, E.A., 'Re-conceptualising the policing of hatred: Confessions and worrying dilemmas of a consultant' (2001), Law and Critique, 12(3), pp.309-329
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Stanton-Ife, J., 'Criminalising conduct with special reference to potential offences of stirring up hatred against disabled or transgender persons' (2013), London: Law Commission.
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Staubli, S. & Kivivuori, J., 'Youth crime victimization and religion: Observations from Finland and Switzerland' (2017), Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, pp. 1-10
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Stavros, S., 'The European Commission’s against racism and intolerance new general policy recommendation on combating hate speech' (2017), in J.-P. Jacque, F. Benoit-Rohmer, P. Grigoriou and M.D. Marouda (Eds.), On the international community: Legal, political, diplomatic issues, Liber Amicorum Stelios Perrakis (pp.413-420), I.Sideris

Stechemesser, A., Wenz, L. & Levermann, A., 'Corona Crisis Fuels Racially Profiled Hate in Social Media Networks' (2020), EClinicalMedicine, 100372 [online]
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Steen, S. & Cohen, M.A., 'Assessing the public’s demand for hate crime penalties' (2004), Justice Quarterly, 21(1), pp.91-124
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Stefanou-Haag, E., 'Antiracism: From legislation to education' (1994), Australian Journal of Human Rights, 1(1), pp.185-197
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Stegmeir, M., 'Muslims on campus: College-bound students, schools contend with rising intolerance' (2017), Journal of College Admission, 237, p.34-39
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Stein, A. & Salime, Z., 'Manufacturing Islamophobia: Rightwing pseudo-documentaries and the paranoid style' (2015), Journal of Communication Inquiry, 39(4), pp.378-396
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Steinl, L., 'Hate crime and gender-based violence against women: An introduction from a criminal law perspective' (2019), Zeitschrift fur Rechtssoziologie, 38(2), pp. 179-207
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Sterphone, J., '“Mut zu Deutschland!”: On the Populist Nationalism of the Alternative für Deutschland' (2018), in F. López-Alves & D.E. Johnson (Eds.). Populist Nationalism in Europe and the Americas (Chapter 6). New York, NY: Routledge
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Stewart, J., 'Anti-Muslim Hate Speech and Displacement Narratives: Case Studies From Sri Lanka and Australia' (2019), Australian Journal of Social Issues [online]
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Stobbs, N., 'Australia' (2008), in Winterdyk, J. & Antonopoulos, G. (eds.) (2008) Racist Victimization: International Reflections and Perspectives. Ashgate.

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